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Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters – Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters.

The diagnosis and treatment of normal eating. What are the effects of such true overeating?

Appropriate eating, then, was seen as eating that is responsive to the overeatinb needs of the body. Soc Influ. The question, then, is whether the eating goal produces real overeating when dieting restraints are loosened. Probably not in either of those two cases; but if it is a snack between lunch and dinner, we would clearly view it as excessive. Lee AB, Goldman M. One could thus say that despite the differences in quality of discomfort psychological vs.

  • In: Stunkard AJ, editor. Moreover, individual differences in body size, composition, and metabolic rate, as well as exercise or caloric expenditure level, will determine how many calories a given individual needs simply to maintain caloric equilibrium.

  • But restrained eaters eating on their own are less able to resist tempting foods or emotional upsets, or distractions or other disruptions of their self-controland are prone to eating more, possibly to the extent of actual overeating [e.

  • Background Citations.

  • Soc Influ. Even simply being perceptually exposed to attractive foods seems to cause restrained eaters to increase their intake [e.

  • Peter Herman.

OPINION article

Not surprisingly, people who overeat, by eating more than is needed or wanted by their bodies, overrating physically uncomfortable and eventually stop eating, or may even vomit if their overconsumption pushed them beyond what their stomachs emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters hold. Keywords: overeating, restrained eaters, unrestrained eaters, norm violation, personal norm, social norm Citation: Polivy J and Herman CP Overeating in Restrained and Unrestrained Eaters. Dieters, or restrained eaters, however, set themselves goals that are designed to help them to lose weight or maintain a lowered weight, and such eating goals often involve eating less food than they would like Braude L, Stevenson RJ. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

But this does restrained seem eaters be and overeating to counteract the fear of being seen as an overeater. JP and CH discussed the content of the paper. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. For emotional arousal eaters who are particularly responsive to food cues 196274 and who tend to like fattening foods more 75it may be particularly difficult to avoid succumbing to the temptation to eat more of tempting, attractive foods. Am Psychol. In the modeling studies reviewed by Cruwyz et al. One can literally eat too much for one's body to comfortably process, which is true physical overeating.

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According to Woods emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaterseven when one compensates by eating less over the rest of the day, an episode of overeating does have effects on the body. But given that this ice cream was in effect a between-meals snack, can we safely conclude that the non-preloaded unrestrained eaters who ate as much as grams of ice cream were not overeating? Once again, we must question whether this increased eating constitutes overeating or not. The underestimated role of overeating in a positive mood. Experimental and clinical aspects of restrained eating. Not surprisingly, people who overeat, by eating more than is needed or wanted by their bodies, feel physically uncomfortable and eventually stop eating, or may even vomit if their overconsumption pushed them beyond what their stomachs could hold.

The psychology of overeating. Disinhibition is not necessarily equivalent to overeating except by the definition of violating one's own standards or intentions. Does compensatory undereating for the rest of the day, and thus keeping the total intake from being excessive, or more than the person needed, essentially mean that the overeating that did occur does not have any further implications and thus it is as if it never did occur? Eating style, overeating, and overweight in a representative Dutch sample. Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. The reviewer TV declared a past co-authorship with the authors to the handling Editor.

Publication types

The question, then, is whether the eating goal produces real overeating when dieting restraints are loosened. Aroussal CP, Polivy J. Physical or objective overeating, self-perceived overeating, and simply eating more than others around you are arguably three different phenomena. In addition, young people who report that they tend to overeat relative to others also report that they generally use less healthy dieting methods, and feel worse about themselves, being more depressed and dissatisfied with themselves and their bodies, as well as having lower self-esteem

  • Papies EK, Hamstra P.

  • Ecol Food Nutr.

  • Keywords: overeating, restrained eaters, unrestrained eaters, norm violation, personal norm, social norm Citation: Polivy J and Herman CP Overeating in Restrained and Unrestrained Eaters.

  • J Abnorm Psychol. A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

  • Is the effect of social influence on eating attenuated by hunger? The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

Imitation of snack food intake among normal-weight and overweight children. JP wrote the first draft and CH commented, corrected, and made suggestions, which JP then incorporated into the manuscript. Why dieters fail: testing the goal conflict model of eating. One would have to agree that someone who eats a large, fully-dressed burger with fries, salad and a milkshake is eating a lot, but is that overeating? According to Woods 39even when one compensates by eating less over the rest of the day, an episode of overeating does have effects on the body.

In the modeling studies reviewed by Cruwyz et al. Over rrstrained long term, it is not clear whether dieters are more likely to overeat physically than are non-dieters and thus weigh more, or if they are merely genetically more inclined to emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters or gain weight on smaller quantities of food Perceptions of undereaters: a matter of perspective? In experimental settings, we say that the restrained eaters have overeaten when they eat more in one condition than they do in another, or when they eat more than unrestrained eaters do in the same condition; but when unrestrained eaters eat more than restrained eaters do in a control condition, for examplewe say that the restrained eaters are undereating, rather than considering the possibility that the unrestrained eaters may themselves be overeating. Polivy J, Herman CP.

Obes Res. Experimental and clinical aspects of restrained eating. Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters.

Examining the mechanisms in female participants. Restrained eating and food cues: recent findings and conclusions. Non-preloaded unrestrained eaters tended to eat a fairly large amount of ice cream, at least compared to what non-preloaded restrained eaters consumed, or to what preloaded unrestrained eaters ate. Mood induction was accomplished by exposure to 1 of 3 film segments: a travelogue neutral affecta comedy film positive affectand a horror film negative affect. Overeating is relative for both restrained and unrestrained eaters.

Higgs S, Thomas J. The body learns to anticipate the arrival of food into the body from the presence of food cues. Learning to abuse emotional eating starts during the toddler period or even younger. Restrained eating and food cues: recent findings and conclusions.

OPINION article

But restrained eaters eating on their own are less able to resist tempting foods or emotional upsets, or distractions or other disruptions of their self-controland are prone to eating more, possibly to the extent of actual overeating [e. The effects of alcohol on eating behavior: disinhibition or sedation? Ironic processes in the eating behaviour of restrained eaters. After a doubly large preload 30 ounces of milkshakehowever, both restrained and unrestrained eaters ate minimal amounts of the taste-rating food

Abstract We tested the effects of 3 mood inductions neutral, positive, and negative on food intake in 91 women of varying degrees of dietary restraint. Mood induction was accomplished by exposure to 1 of 3 film segments: a travelogue neutral affecta comedy film positive affectand a horror film negative affect. In such an instance, did overeating occur or not? The effects of monitoring by self and others on consumption in dieters and nondieters.

Am J Clin Nutr. Van Ib, T. This happens whether the participants are especially hungry 38 — 40 or not 33 Moreover, individual differences in body size, composition, and metabolic rate, as well as exercise or caloric expenditure level, will determine how many calories a given individual needs simply to maintain caloric equilibrium.

  • View 2 excerpts, cites background.

  • Conflict of Interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Pers Indiv Diff.

  • Brunstrom J. Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal.

  • PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Is such a person an overeater?

Conflicting internal and external eating cues: Impact on food intake and attributions. Dieting and bingeing: a causal analysis. Violation of a social norm seems, on the other hand, to lead to less eating, in order to avoid seeming greedy or piggish. Dysphoric mood and overeating: a test of restraint theory's disinhibition hypothesis. Les effets des stimuli alimentaires sur la consommation et le poids.

Background Citations. Soc Influ. J Abnorm Psychol. There are thus at least three kinds of overeating.

Intnl Jour Eat Disord. One could thus say that despite the differences in quality of discomfort psychological vs. People differ in their satiety goals when they eat. It seems as if we know a lot about overeating in restrained eaters.

  • Effect of staring on normal and overweight students.

  • Restrained eaters who get what appears to be a larger portion eat more of a subsequent food than those getting a smaller or similar portion and than unrestrained eaters who get the larger portionalthough they did not feel badly about themselves and were actually happier than those who got what they thought was a smaller portion.

  • But maybe we don't know as much as we think we do. When restrained eaters are disinhibited, whether by believing their diets have already been violated [e.

  • The assumption that emotional eating causes weight gain and that stopping emotional eating produces weight loss is oversimplified and physiologically naive.

  • We should thus think more explicitly about what we mean when we say that restrained eaters have overeaten. J Consum Res.

Effects of physical threat and ego threat on eating behavior. J Abnorm Psychol. Decades of studies of eating arousap dieters document how dieters can be induced to succumb to temptation emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters eat more than they planned. Dieters, or restrained eaters, however, set themselves goals that are designed to help them to lose weight or maintain a lowered weight, and such eating goals often involve eating less food than they would like In: Mela D, editor. Ironic processes in the eating behaviour of restrained eaters. Negative mood-induced overeating in obese binge eaters: an experimental study.

Not only do dieters eat more when they have been induced to consume a diet-breaking preload, but their diets are emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters by emotions [e. We must be careful in our use of terminology. Personality, perceived appropriateness, and acknowledgement of social influences on food intake. Despite decades of research on the strength of social factors in determining eating behavior [e. If asked, such dieters would most likely call their consumption overeating. Eating can raise your spirits when you are low, soothe you when you are tense, and distract you when you are upset. The body learns to anticipate the arrival of food into the body from the presence of food cues.

Do we mean that they have eaten emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters than they intended to eat or than their diets allow i. Front Psychol. Disinhibition is not necessarily equivalent to overeating except by the definition of violating one's own standards or intentions. In fact, most laboratory studies of overeating in restrained eaters deliberately use foods seen by most people as inherently fattening or diet-breaking, irrespective of amount [e. Addict Behav.

Emotional eating

Not if we look at how people actually behave around food. As an example, consider the person who eats 2 restaurant main courses. What are the effects of such true overeating?

Restrained eating and food cues: recent findings and conclusions. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. But first I will find out what I am feeling. Jansen A.

J Exp Soc Psychol. For example, correlational studies show that people eating eqters tend to eat similar amounts [e. So physical overeating cannot be defined as any particular amount of food, as the amounts that constitute appropriate and excessive intake will differ from individual to individual. People appear to be very careful to match their eating to the amount eaten by others around them

This happens whether the restrxined are especially hungry 38 — 40 or not 33 Or possibly they have eaten more than a societal norm dictates. These disruptions of dietary restraint lead restrained eaters to abandon their diet goals for at least the short term, and instead to indulge in the foods they have been denying themselves.

Google Scholar. Overeating is relative for both restrained and unrestrained eaters. Do we mean that they have eaten more than they intended to eat or than their diets allow i. Consumption stereotypes and impression management: how you are what you eat.

Obviously, athletes on training regimes emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters are expending huge numbers faters calories need to eat more than office workers who sit at a desk all day. The outcomes of the three types of overeating differ in some ways. Les effets des stimuli alimentaires sur la consommation et le poids. Even simply being perceptually exposed to attractive foods seems to cause restrained eaters to increase their intake [e.

J Abnorm Psychol. Examining the mechanisms in female participants. J Am Diet Assoc. But violating a norm, either social or personal, seems to produce similar feelings of guilt, embarrassment, and disappointment in oneself. Cognitive restraint can be offset by distraction, leading to increased meal intake in women. Dieting and bingeing: a causal analysis. Polivy J, Herman CP.

But restrained reztrained eating on their own are less able to resist tempting foods or emotional upsets, or distractions or other disruptions of their self-controland are prone to eating more, possibly to the extent of actual overeating [e. Am J Clin Nutr. When asked what the appropriate amount to eat should be, both university students and a community sample of adults agreed that the nutritional needs of the individual determine what is appropriate

When we eat with others as people do most of the timeour eating is very much guided by what and how much those others eat How restrained eaters perceive the amount they eat. Herman, C. Bellisle F, Dalix AM. Is physical overeating defined by the same quantities for all individuals?

When we eat with others as people do most of the timeour eating overeatint very much guided by what and how much those others eat You eat a lot, but the root cause is under eating rather than emotional arousal. Addic Behav. But if one overeats at one meal and then compensates for the rest of the day by undereating, thus achieving a total caloric intake for the day that matches that of people who ate moderate amounts at all meals, did the person overeat? In some instances, the amounts consumed may well be great enough to be seen as excessive, but it is not always obvious that such is the case; in fact, it is seldom obvious. Few do.

Social influences on eating. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. People-pleasing through eating: sociotropy predicts greater eating in response to perceived social pressure. Is overeating eating more than some specific, identifiable amount, or does it vary situationally?

Extending this line of thought even further, the same amount of food may be seen as normal eating or as a male by the same individual, depending on endocrine society the clinical practice is feeling at the time Keywords: overeating, restrained eaters, unrestrained eaters, norm guidelines hypogonadism, personal norm, social norm. But maybe we don't know as much as we think we do. References 1. The control of meal size in human subjects: a role for expected satiety, expected satiation and premeal planning. Clinical depression and weight change: a complex relation. But if one overeats at one meal and then compensates for the rest of the day by undereating, thus achieving a total caloric intake for the day that matches that of people who ate moderate amounts at all meals, did the person overeat?

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Schoeller D. Save to Library. Knight L, Boland F. Jansen A, Van den Hout M. Mood-induced eating.

Philadelphia, PA: W. What is eaten when all of the foods at a meal are served in large portions? Thus, even when one compensates for having overeaten, there may still be negative effects and thus it seems that overeating at a single occasion is still, physically speaking, overeating, even if the consumption for the rest of the day is curtailed. References 1.

It seems that researchers including ourselves have been conflating the various types of overeating in studies and discussions of the concept. Perusing the tables of contents of journals that address eating disorders, food intake, and obesity reveals a number of articles addressing emotional eating. Even being distracted while eating can result in increased intake, especially among restrained eaters, who may not even be aware that they have eaten more than usual [e.

Personal Norm Violation When asked if they have overeaten or how often they overeat, most people or at least most dieters are probably thinking about eating more than they intended or expected to eat, not necessarily eating to the point of physical discomfort We may be worried that we will be viewed as large eaters, a label that is associated with being regarded as unattractive, lacking in self-control, and unfeminine compared to those viewed as small eaters Intnl Jour Eat Disord. J Soc Clin Psychol. Consumption stereotypes and impression management: how you are what you eat. People appear to be very careful to match their eating to the amount eaten by others around them

Perceptions of undereaters: a matter of perspective? By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you arousa to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. Peter Herman. In experimental settings, we say that the restrained eaters have overeaten when they eat more in one condition than they do in another, or when they eat more than unrestrained eaters do in the same condition; but when unrestrained eaters eat more than restrained eaters do in a control condition, for examplewe say that the restrained eaters are undereating, rather than considering the possibility that the unrestrained eaters may themselves be overeating. Restrained eating and food cues: recent findings and conclusions. One can literally eat too much for one's body to comfortably process, which is true physical overeating. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar.

Eating in a focused fashion is likely to soothe or calm you and restraine raise your spirits a bit. When we eat with others as people do most of the timeour eating is very much guided by what and how much those others eat Herman CP, Mack D.

Obesity: Basic mechanisms and treatment. Thus, overeating in restrained eaters does not inevitably result in andd overeating, especially if the initial overeating is severe enough to produce physical satiety. So physical overeating cannot be defined as any particular amount of food, as the amounts that constitute appropriate and excessive intake will differ from individual to individual. For example, correlational studies show that people eating together tend to eat similar amounts [e. Influences of mood and perceived intoxication. Just think of your last holiday dinner with friends or family.

If it oveeating the only meal that the person eats that day, is it overeating? For the most part, we seem to try to limit our intake so that we do not exceed the amount eaten by others Effects of the presence of others on food intake: a normative interpretation. Curr Opin Behav Sci.

  • Handbook of Eating and Drinking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. View 1 excerpt, cites background.

  • Extending this line of thought even further, the same amount of food may be seen as normal eating or as a binge by the same individual, depending on how the individual is feeling at the time The moderating role of regulatory focus on the social modeling of food intake.

  • Heal Psychol.

  • Conflicting internal and external eating cues: Impact on food intake and attributions. Jansen A.

Google Scholar. Do emotional states influence binge eating in the obese? Peter Herman. Br J Heal Psychol. Ecol Food Nutr. For example, we know that restrained eaters are more distressed or uncomfortable when they eat more than other people do or when they exceed social norms of appropriate amounts to eat 10 — Handbook of Eating and Drinking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

Soc Influ. The fact that restrained eaters report that they overeat more frequently than do unrestrained eaters 9 may simply mean that restrained eaters are more likely overesting label a given amount of consumption as overeating than are unrestrained eaters [although the fact that dietary restraint does predict weight gain in some prospective studies argues that at least some of the time they are correct, see e. Peter Herman. If it is the only meal that the person eats that day, is it overeating? But given that this ice cream was in effect a between-meals snack, can we safely conclude that the non-preloaded unrestrained eaters who ate as much as grams of ice cream were not overeating? Influences of mood and perceived intoxication.

JP and CH discussed the content of the paper. Woods notes that while there is emotionl clear reason why elevated glucose should be dangerous to animals and peoplethe tight physiological regulation of consumption-produced glucose indicates that such elevations must pose a risk to health. I'll have what she's having: effects of social influence and body type on the food choices of others. Or what about people who eat more than is necessary to sustain oneself or than is physically comfortable? Moreover, the timing of the eating matters.

New York, NY: Springer Publication Type. Citation Type. For example, correlational studies show that people eating together tend to eat similar amounts [e. Pers Indiv Diff. Addict Behav. For example, we know that restrained eaters are more distressed or uncomfortable when they eat more than other people do or when they exceed social norms of appropriate amounts to eat 10 —

For example, we know that restrained eaters and overeating more distressed or restrained eaters when they eat more than restrauned people do or when they exceed emotional arousal norms of appropriate amounts to eat 10 — Eating and its disorders. Physically overeating leads to physical discomfort, which is not generally the case for those who violate a personal or social eating norm. Social influences on eating. Personal Norm Violation When asked if they have overeaten or how often they overeat, most people or at least most dieters are probably thinking about eating more than they intended or expected to eat, not necessarily eating to the point of physical discomfort DOI:

J Consult Clin Psychol. In reality, your body remembers: You are less hungry the next meal, adousal next day or even the next week. We must be careful in our use of terminology. It seems, then, that people decide what an appropriate amount to eat is by monitoring the food intake of the people around them.

Ecol Food Nutr. Knight L, Boland F. Restrained eaters show enhanced automatic approach tendencies towards food. You eat to feel better or to push down or to blot out your feelings. Food, Diet, and Obesity. In experimental settings, we say that the restrained eaters have overeaten when they eat more in one condition than they do in another, or when they eat more than unrestrained eaters do in the same condition; but when unrestrained eaters eat more than restrained eaters do in a control condition, for examplewe say that the restrained eaters are undereating, rather than considering the possibility that the unrestrained eaters may themselves be overeating.

Moreover, the timing of the eating matters. Google Scholar. Suppressing to please, eating to cope: the effect of overweight women's emotion suppression on romantic relationships and eating. Is overeating eating more than some specific, identifiable amount, or does it vary situationally?

Is counter-regulation among restrained eaters a result of motivated overeating? In some instances, they simply wish to forestall hunger; but in general, people want to feel comfortably full or sated after they eat, although there are some people who want to feel completely full We proposed that there are different ways to overeat, and thus different types of overeating. J Am Diet Assoc.

Non-preloaded unrestrained eaters tended to eat a fairly large amount of ice cream, at least compared to what non-preloaded restrained eaters consumed, or to what preloaded unrestrained eaters ate. Obes Res. By self-monitoring very consistently. The effects of alcohol on eating behavior: II. Intnl Jour Eat Disord. The outcomes of the three types of overeating differ in some ways.

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Moreover, the timing of the eating matters. In some instances, the amounts consumed may well be great enough to eatrs seen as excessive, but it is not always obvious emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters such is the case; in fact, it is seldom obvious. An experimental investigation of people's reasons for controlling their consumption showed that it was those who were thinking about avoiding negative outcomes who most closely matched their eating to other eaters in the situation When restrained eaters or dieters violate their diet goals or personal conceptions of what is enough or appropriate to eat, they may feel that they have overeaten, even if the actual quantity eaten is less than would be eaten by someone without dietary restrictions Distress and eating: why do dieters overeat?

Physical restraint equipment device. Although these individuals may eat different amounts, none of them could be said to have overeaten with respect to a personal eating goal. Braude L, Stevenson RJ. For example, the original preload studies asked participants to arrive having not eaten for 2 or 3 h, but often this meant coming in between lunch and dinner. Further, restrained but not unrestrained eaters increased their intake when they merely anticipated having to eat some of a forbidden food, again, regardless of caloric content. Even simply being perceptually exposed to attractive foods seems to cause restrained eaters to increase their intake [e.

And if that person ate restrainedd food and then competed in an Iron Man Triathlon, the activity level might require such a large meal, thus making it appropriate, not overeating. Trying not to eat when you are hungry and food-preoccupied takes a lot of energy. At the same time, however, we tend to like other people who eat more than we do more, and dislike those who eat less than we do 72 ; if someone eats more than we do, then by comparison we become reasonable eaters, whereas if someone eats less than we do, it makes us look bad. Knight L, Boland F. JP and CH discussed the content of the paper.

  • Mood induction was accomplished by exposure to 1 of 3 film segments: a travelogue neutral affecta comedy film positive affectand a horror film negative affect. How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high-risk holiday season?

  • Thus, overeating in restrained eaters does not inevitably result in more overeating, especially if the initial overeating is severe enough to produce physical satiety.

  • Film-induced sadness as a trigger for disinhibited eating. In subjects exposed to the neutral film, food intake decreased with increasing levels of dietary restraint.

  • Not only do dieters eat more when they have been induced to consume a diet-breaking preload, but their diets are disrupted by emotions [e.

  • Consumption stereotypes and impression management: how you are what you eat. In this case, overeating is eating more than one's eating companions do.

  • When restrained eaters are disinhibited, whether by believing their diets have already been violated [e. But as the research mentioned above suggests, there are other forms of overeating as well.

But restrained eaters eating on their own are less emotionql to resist tempting foods or emotional upsets, or distractions or other disruptions of their self-controland are prone to eating more, possibly to the extent of actual overeating [e. Appropriate eating, then, was seen as eating that is responsive to the internal needs of the body. Physically overeating leads to physical discomfort, which is not generally the case for those who violate a personal or social eating norm. So, overeating is at least in some respects a relative term. Cognitive restraint can be offset by distraction, leading to increased meal intake in women.

Polivy J. Mood induction was accomplished by exposure to 1 of 3 endocrine society clinical practice guidelines hypogonadism male segments: a travelogue neutral affecta comedy film positive affectand a horror film negative affect. How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high-risk holiday season? If asked, such dieters would most likely call their consumption overeating. Abstract We tested the effects of 3 mood inductions neutral, positive, and negative on food intake in 91 women of varying degrees of dietary restraint.

Goal priming and eating behavior: Enhancing self-regulation by environmental cues. Eating in a focused fashion is likely to soothe or calm you and even raise your spirits a bit. Ecol Food Nutr. When we speak of overeating, we are generally talking about a single eating episode or meal.

Br J Heal Psychol. When we speak reztrained overeating, we are generally talking about a single eating episode or meal. Share This Paper. But as the research mentioned above suggests, there are other forms of overeating as well. In the modeling studies reviewed by Cruwyz et al. We must be careful in our use of terminology. The illusion of counter-regulation.

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Not only do dieters eat more when they have been induced to consume a diet-breaking preload, but their diets are disrupted by emotions [e. Intnl Jour Eat Disord. Dietary restraint and body mass change: a 3-year follow up study in a representative Dutch sample. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Behavioral and biological associations of dietary restraint: a review of the literature.

Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Braude L, Stevenson RJ. Cur Obes Rev. Influences of mood and perceived intoxication. The social sanctions seem to be strong enough to prevent overeating when being watched by others 7677when one has to report to others how much one ate 78or even when just eating in front of a statue of a human head It is natural to eat for emotional reasons.

Further, restrained but not unrestrained eaters increased overeating restrained intake when they merely anticipated having to eat some of a forbidden food, again, regardless of caloric content. Emotional arousal and violating a norm, either eaters or personal, seems to produce similar feelings of guilt, embarrassment, and disappointment in oneself. Food restriction and binge eating: a study of former prisoners of war. Has PDF. Finally, as the modeling studies above demonstrate, the amount eaten by others can define a norm, and violating this socially defined norm can be seen by the self and others as overeating, again, even if the quantities involved are small and less than required for the individual's own satiety

Woods notes that while there is no clear reason why elevated glucose should be dangerous to animals and peoplethe tight physiological regulation of consumption-produced glucose indicates that such elevations must pose a risk to health. Finally, as the modeling studies above demonstrate, the amount eaten by others can define a norm, and violating this socially defined norm can be seen by the self and others as overeating, again, even if the quantities involved are small and less than required for the individual's own satiety Int J Eat Disord. Even being distracted while eating can result in increased intake, especially among restrained eaters, who may not even be aware that they have eaten more than usual [e. One would have to agree that someone who eats a large, fully-dressed burger with fries, salad and a milkshake is eating a lot, but is that overeating?

Thus, it is not always obvious what overeating restrrained, and we and other researchers may have been somewhat cavalier with our use of the term. We all know the feeling of having eaten too much, to the point that we feel uncomfortable. One can literally eat too much for one's body to comfortably process, which is true physical overeating. Eat Behav, Overeating, then, may be construed in various ways. The control of meal size in human subjects: a role for expected satiety, expected satiation and premeal planning.

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