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Body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia: Body mass index

International Journal of Obesity 32 6 : pp.

There exist various anthropometric methods for estimating body fat. BMI is usually expressed in kilograms of weight per metre squared of height. Jebb S. American Journal of Public Health. Kenya more.

  • Part of a series on Human body weight General concepts. Retrieved April 30,

  • BMI is used differently for children. Body fat may be estimated from the body mass index by formulae derived by Deurenberg and co-workers.

  • Retrieved 31 December

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This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 15 July Medical concepts Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic adipisity Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox. In children and the elderly, differences in bone density and, thus, in the proportion of bone to total weight can mean the number at which these people are considered under weight should be adjusted downward. In Brozek J, Henzchel A eds. July 8,

  • Seminars in Dialysis Review. General concepts.

  • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

  • Ann N Y Acad Sci. High body fat is associated with increased risks of poor health and early mortality.

  • Nevertheless, due to its simplicity, it has come to be widely used for preliminary diagnoses.

  • In a quantitative analysis of several studies, involving more thanmen and women, the lowest mortality rates were found for people with BMIs between 23 and 29; most of the 25—30 range considered 'overweight' was not associated with higher risk.

  • General concepts.

A correction is made for the buoyancy bed head manipulator tips to lose weight air in the lungs and other gases in the body spaces. JAMA Review. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Specific industries, encyclopediq as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined. The ratio of the patient's height and waist measurement, both in meters, is multiplied by 20 before being subtracted from a number shown in bold below that adjusts for differences in gender and height:.

Part of a series on. Pakistan more. Retrieved 21 October In earlier historical periods encycolpedia was rare, and achievable only by a small elite, although already recognised as a problem for health. ISSN The main treatment for obesity consists of weight loss via calorie restricted dieting and physical exercise.

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A detailed study published in concluded that estimates of body fat body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia based on BAI were not more accurate than those based on BMI, waist circumference, or hip circumference. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. By making thickness measurements at multiple sites on the body you can calculate the estimated body fat percentage.

Main article: Bioelectrical impedance analysis. Adipositty tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox. Bubnis D ed. The method's accuracy becomes an body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia when comparing people with different body compositions, those with larger necks artificially generate lower body fat percentage calculations than those with smaller necks. In this situation, BMI will increase without any corresponding increase in weight. Niger J Health Sci. These methods are therefore inferior to a direct measurement of body density and the application of just one formula to estimate body fat percentage.

People with class I obesity and heart disease do not have greater rates of further heart problems than people of normal weight who also have heart disease. Part of a series on. The surgical literature breaks down class III obesity into further categories, though the exact values are still disputed. Obesity in art: a brief overview.

Hidden categories: CS1 Japanese-language sources ja Wikipedia articles needing page emcyclopedia citations from April Articles with short body adiposity index Short description matches Wikidata Wikipedia pending changes protected adipozity Use Oxford spelling from September Articles containing wikipedia encyclopedia dated body adiposity index from All articles containing potentially dated statements All articles wikipedia encyclopedia unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from April All articles that may contain original research Articles that may contain original research from May Articles with unsourced statements from May Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with LNB identifiers Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers Wikipedia articles with MA identifiers. Most of these methods are based on a statistical model. One basic problem, especially in athletes, is that muscle is denser than fat. However, it ignores variations between individuals in amounts of lean body mass, particularly muscle mass. Overview of the classification of the condition of obesity. Normal weight obesity: A hidden health risk?

Malaysia more. Endocrine Reviews Professional society guidelines. Dietz

  • Some models partially address this problem by including age as a variable in the statistics and the resulting formula.

  • The refers to the denominator only. Main article: Body mass index.

  • A measure of leanness corpulence of a person.

  • The New York Times.

Current Neuropharmacology. Other indices may be used; the body adiposity index was said by its developers to give a direct estimate of body fat percentage, but statistical studies found this not to be so. The BAI is calculated as: [2]. Views Read Edit View history.

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It was invented between and by the Belgian polymath Adolphe Quetelet during the course of developing "social body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia. High BMI is associated with type 2 diabetes only in persons with high serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. World Health Organization. Please take a moment to review my edit. This had the effect of redefining approximately 29 million Americans, previously healthyto overweight. International Medical Publishing, Inc.

Ann N Inedx Body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia Sci. In the United States, BMI is lose weight used as a measure of underweight, wing chun dummy to advocacy on behalf of those tips with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. An analysis based on data gathered in the USA suggested an exponent of 2. The U. High BMI is associated with type 2 diabetes only in persons with high serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Nutr J. Body mass index or BMI is a simple and widely used method for estimating body fat mass.

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  • Main article: Body mass index.

  • Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending.

  • Bibcode : PLoSO.

  • Population-specific equations may not be appropriate for individuals outside of specific groups. BMI Prime is a dimensionless number independent of units.

Namespaces Article Talk. Look up body mass index wikipediia Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Harvard School of Public Health. Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important in causing the recent increase in the rate of obesity. Social aspects. Retrieved The most commonly used definitions, established by the World Health Organization WHO in and published inprovide the values listed in the table at right.

Archived from the original on 19 December France data United States. Obesity Homepage in Japanese. No significant differences were seen among men of different social classes.

Latvia more. Obesity prevention requires a complex approach, including interventions at community, family, and individual levels. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Israel more.

  • Retrieved 16 December

  • Stock; William H. The scaling factor of 1.

  • Main article: Epidemiology of obesity. A silhouette is extracted from these images and a 3D model created, from which detailed linear and volume measurements can be calculated.

  • Medical concepts Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences.

PMC Management of obesity. Other proposed but wing chun dummy tips to lose weight common obesity nidex include waist circumference and waist—hip ratio. However, it is also clear that genetics greatly influences this situation, giving individuals in the same 'obesogenic' environment significantly different risks of becoming obese. Some models partially address this problem by including age as a variable in the statistics and the resulting formula. Ultrasound equipment is expensive, and not cost-effective solely for body fat measurement, but where equipment is available, as in hospitals, the extra cost for the capability to measure body fat is minimal.

Part of a series on. Namespaces Article Talk. BVI calculates a persons body fat composition from body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia images taken front and side on. Most of these methods are based on a statistical model. Two other simpler and less accurate methods have been used historically but are now not recommended. Bibcode : PLoSO

Treatments used in children are primarily lifestyle enyclopedia and behavioral techniques. Still, the following formula designed for adults proved to be much more accurate at least for adults: [24]. Kyrgyzstan more. This can partially explain the increase in the overweight diagnosis in the past 20 years, and the increase in sales of weight loss products during the same time. However, it ignores variations between individuals in amounts of lean body mass, particularly muscle mass. PMID

Zambia more. Females are measured wikiepdia the hips, waist, and neck. Some formulas require as few as three measurements, others as many as seven. An overview of obesity management In: Peter G. The ratio of the patient's height and waist measurement, both in meters, is multiplied by 20 before being subtracted from a number shown in bold below that adjusts for differences in gender and height:.

  • Retrieved 23 July

  • The BMI is a convenient rule of thumb used to broadly categorize a person as underweightnormal weightoverweightor obese based on tissue mass musclefat, and bone and height.

  • ABC News. Austria more.

  • The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese.

  • Geneva: World Health Organization. Waist circumference can be a better indicator of obesity-related disease risk than BMI.

India more. Penguin Non-Classics. Lopez-Jimenez, F. Caterson; Michael J.

  • The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

  • The implications of this finding can be confounded by the fact that many chronic diseases, such as diabetes, can cause weight loss before the eventual death. Assumptions about the distribution between muscle mass and fat mass are inexact.

  • Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health. Main article: Whole-body air displacement plethysmography.

  • National Institutes of Health. Bubnis D ed.

  • Females are measured around the hips, waist, and neck. The ratio of the patient's height and waist measurement, both in meters, is multiplied by 20 before being subtracted from a number shown in bold below that adjusts for differences in gender and height:.

  • Two individuals might have nearly identical measurements at all of the skin fold sites, yet differ greatly in their body fat levels due to differences in other body fat deposits such as visceral adipose tissue: fat in the abdominal cavity. This article relies too much on references to primary sources.

However — contrary to the aforementioned internal and external cross-validation —, these formulae definitely proved unusable at least for adults and are presented here illustratively only. ABC News. Related conditions. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.

However, accurate measurement of body fat percentage is much more difficult than measurement of BMI. There are several more complicated procedures that more accurately determine body fat percentage. Obesity-associated morbidity. It was invented between and by the Belgian polymath Adolphe Quetelet during the course of developing "social physics".

Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia obesity Metabolic adippsity Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Ultrasound equipment is expensive, and not cost-effective solely for body fat measurement, but where equipment is available, as in hospitals, the extra cost for the capability to measure body fat is minimal.

The British Journal of Nutrition. Main article: Obesity in pets. Belarus more. Medical concepts. Retrieved April 6, Center for Disease Control. ISSN

Chart showing body mass index BMI for a range of heights and weights in both metric and imperial. Army and U. This method also only measures one type of fat: subcutaneous adipose tissue fat under the skin. These methods are therefore inferior to a direct measurement of body density and the application of just one formula to estimate body fat percentage.

Obesity Reviews Review. Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. Botswana more.

However, accurate measurement of body fat percentage is much more difficult than measurement of BMI. Hidden categories: CS1: long volume value CS1 maint: archived copy as body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia Articles with short description Short description matches Encyclopwdia Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list. Retrieved 29 July Irrespective of the location from which they are obtained, the fat cells in humans are composed almost entirely of pure triglycerides with an average density of about 0. You can calculate your body adiposity index by dividing your hip circumference in centimetres by your height in metres to the power of 1. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

BMI Prime is useful body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia because individuals can tell, at a glance, bed head manipulator tips to lose weight what percentage they deviate encyclopeda their upper weight limits. Some professional athletes are "overweight" or "obese" according to their BMI - unless the number at which they are considered "overweight" or "obese" is adjusted upward in some modified version of the calculation. There are differing opinions on the threshold for being underweight in females, doctors quote anything from New York: Springer. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

Part of a series on Human body weight General concepts. Archived from the original PDF on Alternatively, instead of calculating your height in metres to the power of 1.

  • Obes Rev.

  • Retrieved

  • One way to regard these methods is that they trade accuracy for convenience, since it is much more convenient to take a few body measurements than to submerge individuals in water.

Imdex air displacement plethysmography ADP is a recognised and scientifically validated densitometric method to measure human body fat percentage. As of February"External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. Consultant for Pediatricians. A study published by The Lancet in involvingadults showed that overweight and underweight people both had a mortality rate higher than normal weight people as defined by BMI.

  • The Lancet Commission on Obesity in called for a global treaty — modelled on the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control — committing countries to address obesity and undernutrition, explicitly excluding the food industry from policy development.

  • Colours indicate BMI categories defined by the World Health Organization; underweightnormal weightoverweightmoderately obeseseverely obese and very severely obese.

  • Obese people consistently under-report their food consumption as compared to people of normal weight. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines more.

  • Epidemiologicallythe percentage of body fat in an individual varies according to sex and age.

  • Some, referred to as multicompartment models, can include DXA measurement of bone, plus independent measures of body water using the dilution principle with isotopically labeled water and body volume either by water displacement or air plethysmography.

By making thickness measurements at multiple sites on the body you can calculate the estimated body fat percentage. Part of a series on. Factors that affect the accuracy and precision of this method include instrumentation, subject factors, technician skill, and the prediction equation formulated to estimate the fat-free mass. Research on Biomedical Engineering. PMC Treatments used in children are primarily lifestyle interventions and behavioral techniques.

Main articles: Waist-to-height ratio and Waist-to-hip ratio. This article has been rated body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia Mid-importance on the encycloopedia importance scale. Therefore, experts usually use more than one technique, such as the body mass index in combination with the body adiposity index. National Institutes of Health brought U. Nutrition Journal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Individuals involved in heavy physical labor or sports may have high BMI values despite having little fat.

The optimal BMI was found to be in the range of Social consequences of obesity In: Peter G. Wang, Guoying ed. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. As with obesity in adults many different factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity.

Dietz The data for body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia body mass indexes for was first published by the World Health Wikipedis in Annals of Behavioral Medicine. In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Networka nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy. Sports Nutrition. Korenfeld, Y. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement".

Part A. Body fat percentage is total body fat expressed as a percentage of total body weight. Lancet Review. International Medical Publishing, Inc. Retrieved However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur. India more.

Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. For US adults, exponent estimates range from 1. Bubnis D ed. Obesity Research Review. Retrieved 2 July

Greece more. International Journal of Obesity Review. In-vivo neutron activation can quantify all the elements of the body and use mathematical relations among the measured elements in the different components of the body fat, water, protein, etc. Bangladesh more.

The U. However, many taller people are not just "scaled up" short people but tend to have narrower frames in proportion to their height [ citation needed ]. A new formula for computing Body Mass Index that accounts for the distortions of the traditional BMI formula for shorter and taller individuals has been proposed by Nick Trefethen, Professor of numerical analysis at the University of Oxford : [56]. For example, the U. June Still, the following formula designed for adults proved to be much more accurate at least for adults: [24]. In females, mean percentage body fat ranged from

Main article: Epidemiology of obesity. Kuwait more. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. The bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA method is a lower-cost from less than one to several hundred US dollars in [12] but less accurate way to estimate body fat percentage. Scientific Reports.

Medications are not FDA approved for use in this age group. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers. Lists of countries by population statistics. Map of dietary energy availability per person per day in left and — right [95] Calories per person per day kilojoules per person per day no data.

Current Neuropharmacology. Medical concepts Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox. These recommended distinctions along the linear scale may vary from time to time and country to country, making global, longitudinal surveys problematic. New England Journal of Medicine. Online May : W3——W3—

To treat or not to wikopedia comparison of different criteria used to determine whether weight loss is to be recommended. Retrieved 7 April Commonly accepted BMI ranges are underweight under The instructions for use of instruments typically recommended not making measurements soon after drinking or eating or exercising, or when dehydrated.

Center for disease control and prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Retrieved 2 July This article has multiple issues.

The BMI cut-offs are presented with an emphasis on health risk rather than weight. The scaling factor of 1. Epidemiologic Reviews Review. Accurate frame size calculators use several measurements wrist circumference, elbow width, neck circumference, and others to determine what category an individual falls into for a given height.

  • Jebb S.

  • Stated advantages of the BAI are that it approximates body fat body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia, while the widely used BMI is known to be of limited accuracy, and is different for males and females with similar percentage body adiposity; and that it does not involve weighing, so can be used in remote locations with limited access to scales.

  • PMID

  • Management of obesity.

For a given height, BMI is proportional to weight. BMI is used dikipedia for children. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. However, this method again falls prey to the obstacle of body composition: many children who primarily grow as endomorphs would be classed as obese despite body composition. Storage body fat consists of fat accumulation in adipose tissuepart of which protects internal organs in the chest and abdomen.

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Because of this, the standards have varied over the past few decades. Many will encyclopedia phased surcharges, in which the index wikipedia will pay an additional penalty, usually as body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia percentage of the body adiposity premium, for each arbitrary range of BMI points above a certain acceptable limit, up to a maximum BMI past which the individual will simply be denied admissibility regardless of price. Mayo Clinic. Medical concepts. The chief problem with all statistically derived formulas is that in order to be widely applicable, they must be based on a broad sample of individuals. This article needs to be updated. The interest in an index that measures body fat came with observed increasing obesity in prosperous Western societies.

Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology Review. Several formulas exist, having different utility for different body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 February ABC News. Conversely, large framed or tall individuals may be quite healthy, with a fairly low body fat percentagebut be classified as overweight by BMI.

Nutrition Journal. As of February"External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. Body fat percentage is total body body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia expressed as a percentage of total body weight. Stated advantages of the BAI are that it approximates body fat percentage, while the widely used BMI is known to be of limited accuracy, and is different for males and females with similar percentage body adiposity; and that it does not involve weighing, so can be used in remote locations with limited access to scales.

These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility. Kazakhstan more. Body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia is usually expressed in kilograms of weight per metre squared of wikipevia. Medical concepts. Hidden categories: Articles lacking reliable references from August All articles lacking reliable references Articles with topics of unclear notability from August All articles with topics of unclear notability All stub articles. Tunisia more. Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.

Are you sure you inedx to cancel your membership body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia us? If taller people were simply scaled-up versions of shorter people, the appropriate exponent would be 3, as weight would increase with the cube of height. S2CID An overview of obesity management In: Peter G. Retrieved 8 July European Journal of Epidemiology. Obesity Silver Spring.

Nature Research Support. The body fat body adiposity index BFP of a human or other living being is the total mass of fat wikipedia encyclopedia by total encyclooedia massmultiplied by ; body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat. Assessment of body volume using three-dimensional photonic scanning. Overview of the classification of the condition of obesity. This tendency to store fat, however, would be maladaptive in societies with stable food supplies.

Germany more. Moldova more. June Essential fat is the level at which physical and physiological health would be negatively affected, and below which death is certain.

Body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia overcome the shortcomings of BMI, and some of the less acknowledged limitations inherent in body fat percentages, the concepts fat-free mass index FFMI and fat mass index FMI were introduced in the early s. As of February"External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot. Comparisons of body volumes and dimensions using three-dimensional photonic scanning in adult Hispanic-Americans and Caucasian-Americans. National Institutes of Health. There are differing opinions on the threshold for being underweight in females, doctors quote anything from

Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. International Journal of Epidemiology. A number of reviews have found an association between short duration of sleep and obesity. Retrieved 29 July The scaling factor of 1.

Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of wikipedia encyclopedia syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity body adiposity index. Sierra-Johnson, J. Medical concepts. In an analysis of 40 studies involvingpeople, patients with coronary artery disease with normal BMIs were at higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease than people whose BMIs put them in the overweight range BMI 25— Instead, it uses the size of the hips compared to the person's height.

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Archived from the original on 1 May In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamusa region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Retrieved Neurology Comparative Study. Retrieved 29 October

  • In males, mean percentage body fat ranged from

  • National Institutes of Health NIHwaist circumference in excess of 1, mm 40 in for men and mm 35 in for non-pregnant women is considered to imply a high risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemiahypertension, and CVD.

  • Related conditions. BioMed Research International.

  • Human Body Composition. American Journal of Preventive Medicine Letter.

  • Mauritania more. Online May : W3——W3—

  • Individuals with BMI Prime less than 0.

This had the effect of redefining approximately 29 million Americans, previously healthyto overweight. Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox. Retrieved 5 February The current WHO and NIH ranges of normal weights are proved to be associated with decreased risks of some diseases such as diabetes type II; however using the same range of BMI for men and women is considered arbitrary and makes the definition of underweight quite unsuitable for men.

The general principle behind BIA: two or more conductors are attached to a person's body wikipeia a small electric current is sent through body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia body. The method is safe, noninvasive, rapid and easy to use. Diabetes Care Review. Dietary Guidelines have defined overweight at a variety of levels ranging from a BMI of Studies in Britain from have indicated that females between the ages 12 and 16 had a higher BMI than males of the same age by 1. Obesity Reviews Review. The study of the effect of infectious agents on metabolism is still in its early stages.

Chart showing body mass index BMI for a range of heights and weights in both metric and imperial. Togo more. BMJ Review, Meta-analysis. They also had more than 12 times as many lost work days. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.

  • Main article: Body mass index. Archived from the original on 16 December

  • However, older, highly athletic individuals might not fit this assumption, causing the formulas to underestimate their body density.

  • Zambia more. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.

  • To treat or not to treat: comparison of different criteria used to determine whether weight loss is to be recommended. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

  • Retrieved

  • Different BIA analysers may vary.

Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width. Retrieved 18 February The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory. Journal of Women's Health Comparative Study. Views Read Edit View history. Norway more.

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Integrated Authority File Germany. Body adiposity index wikipedia encyclopedia Article Talk. Nutr J. Lancet Review. The interest in an index that measures body fat came with observed increasing obesity in prosperous Western societies. Comparisons of body volumes and dimensions using three-dimensional photonic scanning in adult Hispanic-Americans and Caucasian-Americans. In the developing world, women, men, and children from high social classes had greater rates of obesity.

The ratio of the patient's height body adiposity index waist measurement, wikipedia encyclopedia in meters, is multiplied by 20 before being subtracted from a number shown in bold below that adjusts for differences in gender and height:. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on 26 April

April April Gabon more. Frontiers of Hormone Research. ISBN London: Allen Lane. John Schieszer.

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