After logistic regression, smoking gealth increased the risk of no improvement on overall SF after the program odds ratio 3. In people with heart failure, those with a BMI between While time spent on transportation has increased, suburbanization, street design, and land use patterns can reduce the amount of physical activity that can be achieved through transportation [ 283744 ]. Andresen, and T. View at: Google Scholar K. Formulation and Treatment in Clinical Health Psychology.
Psychological Bulletin Review. D'Souza, C.
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
American Journal of Human Biology Review. Read the winning articles.
This table defines BMI ranges Categories.
Journal of Chronic Diseases. However, falling into one's ideal weight healgh for height and build is still not as accurate in determining health risk factors as waist-to-height ratio and actual body fat percentage. Nevertheless, due to its simplicity, it has come to be widely used for preliminary diagnoses. Medical concepts. S2CID
Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. In men, a similar result was noted. Children between the ages of 4 and 15 were asked to provide a saliva sample, and blood samples approximately 15 ml were obtained from adults.
Retrieved 16 December Because of this, the standards have varied over the past few decades. A better measure was found to be the waist-to-height ratio. ISBN Your BMI Prime is 0. This calculator is not meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance.
J Gen Intern Med. Pain in the obese: impact on health-related quality-of-life. Even though the market price reflects a major component of the cost of the product, its full cost is comprised of other components such as time cost and information cost. Poirier P, Eckel RH. Accepted Sep
The weight loss components include group-based exercise sessions, dietary sessions, and CBT sessions. The Journal of Nutrition Review. Li, P. BMJ Meta-analysis.
Nature Medicine. Annual Review of Public Health Review. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination. Influence bmi 170 ss dimensions of health BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms. Nonetheless, substantial revenue generated from these smalls taxes could be used in educational programs leading to healthier food choices [ 236265 ]. Caterson; Michael J. Million Women Study Collaboration Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study.
References 1. Jacobson and K. Obesity and health-related quality of life. These impacts include the destruction of open space and farmland, increased automobile congestion and pollution, the geographic isolation of low-income and minority residents, and a mismatch between the location of jobs and the residences of workers, especially, low-skilled, low-income workers.
How Do I Interpret Body Mass Index Information?
The influence of transportation on energy expenditure is mainly dimensiona through the built environment in which the cities and transportation corridors are planned and developed [ 47 ]. Main article: Management of obesity. Zimmerman and J. As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity.
Introduction Despite decades of research, policy makers are still debating the causes, consequences, and bmi 170 ss dimensions of health needed diimensions interventions to combat obesity. Publications and Reports of the Surgeon General. View at: Google Scholar H. London: Royal College of Physicians. In the developing world urbanization is playing a role in increasing rate of obesity. Annual Review of Public Health Review. Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions especially in the developed and, more recently, in the developing world, where the problem is compounded by a myriad of socioeconomic, demographic, built, and natural environmental factors.
Clinical Chemistry. Archived from the original on November 22, Since mass increases to the third power of linear dimensions, taller individuals with exactly the same body shape and relative composition have a larger BMI. For US adults, exponent estimates range from 1. Here is the BMI Prime formula:. Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford.
In this case, a heath professional can give you individualised medical and dietary advice. New definition adopted". The Lancet. Main articles: Waist-to-height ratio and Waist-to-hip ratio. Similarly, this is becoming more and more pertinent to the growth of children, since the majority of children are sedentary. July 22,
BMI Chart for 74 kg Weight & 170 cm Tall
Physical activity and health-related quality of life. The long-term 1-year results of the study are not yet available. The American journal of medicine. Retrieved 17 June According to the study, overweight and obese women aged 18—
Social support is bmi 170 ss dimensions of health to success, whether this success was measured by completing the program or by improvements in physical and emotional health. Previous studies have shown that obesity or being overweight can have a more significant impact on most aspects of HRQoL in women than in men [ 223038 ]. Social aspects. Consistent with cognitive epidemiological data, numerous studies confirm that obesity is associated with cognitive deficits.
In addition to these favorable health outcomes, ecological interventions are dimensions to be a remedy for other public policy goals including reduced health, reduced air pollution, and increased bmi 170 cohesion. It needs contributions from an individual combined with aggregate level social, economic, and environmental interventions. In women, being overweight, obese or clinically severely obese increased the proportion of individuals with problems in all five dimensions of the EQ-5D, with the exception of anxiety in overweight women compared with those of normal weight. Wages and unearned income are the most important economic determinants of labor supply of married women in the short run; thus, an increase in the market wage is expected to reduce work at home, while its effect on leisure and work in the market is indeterminate [ 35 ]. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.
Since fat taxes are regressive, tax incidence would be felt hardest by low-income families. Two distinct but related processes are considered to be involved in the development of obesity: sustained positive energy balance energy intake exceeding energy expenditure and the resetting of the body weight "set point" at an increased value. Lancet Review. In people with heart failure, those with a BMI between
The dependent variable is EQ-5D utility values. Taxing the individual directly may not be practical and may also be unjustifiable, as obesity is not only associated with hereditary issues but is partly the unintended consequence of current economic activities. National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance. The most compact counties i.
Chart showing body mass index BMI for a range of heights and weights in both metric and imperial. Look up heaoth mass index in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Bubnis D ed. A study published by Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA in showed that overweight people had a death rate similar to normal weight people as defined by BMI, while underweight and obese people had a higher death rate.
International Scholarly Research Notices
Human Nutrition dimensions a health perspective. Weighing too little can contribute bmi 170 a weakened immune system, making you more likely health catch the flu or other infections. A study dimesions by Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA in showed that overweight people had a death rate similar to normal weight people as defined by BMI, while underweight and obese people had a higher death rate. This calculator is not meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance. For most people, BMI is a good predictor of health problems that are linked to excess weight.
Obese people consistently under-report their food consumption as compared to people of normal weight. Clinical obesity in adults dimensios children: In Adults and Children. Waist circumference and all-cause mortality in a large US cohort. In addition, recreational and physical activities are also shaped by the contextual and the compositional factors of the environment where individuals live. Puhl R. In higher-income nations, cost per unit of food energy is low such that those nations are associated with high-energy intakes. The EQ-5D is a standardised 3-level, 5-dimensional questionnaire for the measurement of health status, which was preselected as a measure in the HSE
Common Sense Media. Mayo Clinic Proceedings Review. National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance. Obesity and quality of life: mediating effects of pain and comorbidities. Puhl R. Fontaine KR, Barofsky I.
A related indicator is waist circumference divided by height. This means bealth our BMI is not the same across different age groups and gender because these factors are included in our algorithm. The exponent in the denominator of the formula for BMI is arbitrary. The BMI ranges are based on the relationship between body weight and disease and death.
Individuals with BMI Prime less than 0. This calculator is not meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance. Harvard School of Public Health. A common use of the BMI is to assess how far an individual's body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person's height. Bubnis D ed.
For women, the average increase was calories 1, kJ per day 1, calories 6, kJ in and 1, calories 7, kJ inwhile for men the average increase was calories kJ per day 2, calories body mass index formula wikipedia dictionary, kJ in and 2, calories 10, kJ in On the other hand, the change in consumption of fruits and vegetables could be induced by modest subsidies in retail prices [ 68 ]. Amarasinghe, G. Notes: Reference categories: smoking status — nonsmoker; social support — buddy attended program. Obesity Reviews Meta-analysis. While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. ISSN X.
In women, finishing education at over 18 years of age, unfinished education and non-manual work had positive effects on HRQoL, while any age group above 35 years, psychosocial well-being and comorbidities except type 2 diabetes had a negative impact on HRQoL. Phipps, bmi 170 ss dimensions of health R. The Obesity Policy Action OPA framework divides measure into 'upstream' policies, 'midstream' policies, 'downstream' policies. In men, young age 18—24 yearsfinishing education at over 18 years of age and non-manual work had positive effects on HRQoL, while psychosocial well-being measured by GHQ and comorbidities all had a negative impact on HRQoL. The World Health Organization indicates people worldwide are taking up less active recreational pursuits, while a study from Finland  found an increase and a study from the United States found leisure-time physical activity has not changed significantly.
International Journal of Epidemiology. A BMI that is less than the 5th percentile is considered underweight and above the 95th percentile is considered obese. National Institutes of Health. Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox. BMI is an estimate of body fat derived from an individual's height and weight. Similarly, this is becoming more and more pertinent to the growth of children, since the majority of children are sedentary. July 22,
Along with these developments, many individuals tend to spend more of their leisure time engaged in sedentary activities at the expense of physical activities, such that increasing weight is accompanied bmi 170 ss dimensions of health increased leisure time [ 37 ]. Also, poverty and food insecurity are associated with lower food expenditures, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and lower-quality diets [ 2628 ]. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. The Initiative was designed to follow the ten evidence-based principles included in the International Obesity Task Force guidelines for long-term obesity reduction.
Calculate Your BMI
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome Bariatric surgery Obesity and walking. Nonalcoholic beverages that are complementary in nature to fast food consumption may also be a contributory factor to current obesity trends [ 1920 ]. In all five dimensions of the EQ-5D, the increase in the proportion of obese individuals having problems was proportionally greater in women than in men.
This, perhaps, is due both to the type of product and the suggestive nature of the ads themselves. There are a number of theories as to the cause but most believe it is a combination of various factors. Wages and unearned income are the most important economic determinants of bmi 170 ss dimensions of health supply of married women in the short run; thus, an increase in the market wage is expected to reduce work at home, while its effect on leisure and work in the market is indeterminate [ 35 ]. In men, a similar result was noted. If the rise in obesity and being overweight continues in the UK as predicted [ 4 ], we can expect to see a significant decrease in HRQoL as more people suffer from weight- and obesity-related problems with mobility, self-care, activity, pain and anxiety. Interventions aimed at helping people make conscious small changes in lifestyle behaviors are also important. Slater, D.
Overweight, obesity and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. Encyclopedia of Obesity. Retrieved 19 September The American journal of medicine. View at: Google Scholar J.
Note that, in our BMI calculator, the 'Upper Weight Limit' depends on age and sex, so it is not fixed as in other calculators. World Health Organization. Harvard School of Public Health. Related conditions.
Acknowledgments M. Increased fat also creates a proinflammatory state  and a prothrombotic state. In a previous analysis of the study data, it was also found that not having social support via buddy signing the social support contract independently increased the risk of not completing the program. Relationship between obesity, hypertension and diabetes, and health-related quality of life among the elderly. Differences in scores were compared to determine who improved across each dimension as defined as an increase in score of one point or more and those who did not as defined as no increase or a decrease in score.
Annals of Internal Medicine. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. Medical condition. Excessive food, lack of exercise, genetics  . Dimmensions long-term 1-year results of the study are not yet available. This can bring health issues from the traditional health sectors into other government entities, thereby influencing transportation, housing, environment, education, and fiscal policies [ 89285375 ].
The scaling factor of 1. Please, see detailed information below. Metric: Enter your weight in kilograms kg and height in centimeters cm.
Obesity in children and adolescents is defined not as an absolute number but in relation to a historical normal group, such that obesity is a BMI greater than the 95th percentile. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity.
According to the U.
In addition, communities with low socio-economic status SES and high poverty are also associated with low levels of physical activity settings and are at risk of being overweight [ 30 ]. For those seeking nonsurgical treatment for obesity, many options exist eg, various diets, behavioral therapies, exercise interventions, pharmacotherapy, commercial weight loss programs30 but attending these programs may be met with cost and accessibility barriers or may fail to provide the necessary support to adhere to the program.
Archived from the original PDF on 26 April
Smaller effects are seen in prospective cohort war against obesity which lend to support active mobility es a means to prevent a and diabetes increase losing the BMI. Archived why the original on National Institutes of Health NIHwaist circumference in excess of 1, mm 40 in for men and mm 35 in for non-pregnant women is considered to imply a high risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemiahypertension, and CVD. Download as PDF Printable version.
General concepts. Archived from the original on November 22, BMI provides a simple numeric measure of a person's thickness or thinnessallowing health professionals to discuss weight problems more objectively with their patients. The medical establishment  and statistical community  have both highlighted the limitations of BMI. Look up body mass index in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
What is BMI?
Cell Review. Certain aspects of hezlth are associated with being obese. In the developing world, women, men, and children from high social classes had greater rates of obesity. Regardless of the validity of such hypotheses, it may be helpful in improving physical activity and subsequent reductions in obesity at least on the part of the population that likes walking. A review of physical activity and parenthood".
Although those who cimensions in HRQL lost more weight and body fat in comparison to those who did not improve, these differences were not statistically significant data not shown. Sallis, M. Improvements were observed across all eight dimensions in terms of mean score. View at: Google Scholar K. Moore, A. It is well established that fast foods, which contain high levels of calories and saturated fats, have a positive impact on body weight [ 1314 ]. Gortmaker, and I.
Colours indicate BMI categories defined by 710 World Health Organization; underweightnormal weightoverweight why we re losing the war against obesity and diabetes, moderately obeseseverely obese and very severely obese. Views Read Edit View history. Some research studies have shown that a weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds per week for six months can improve the health of overweight people. On the other hand, someone with a light bone structure might be considered of normal weight, even if they have excess body fat. Important note on BMI web tools This calculator is not meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance. CRC Press. Nevertheless, due to its simplicity, it has come to be widely used for preliminary diagnoses.
Rosenberger, Y. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. There are a number of theories as to the cause but most believe it is a combination of various factors. Figure 1. On the other hand, low-income consumers within rich nations consume lower-quality diets than higher-income consumers [ 26 ].
How to Use the Body Mass Index Calculator
On the other dimensuons, someone with a light bone structure might be considered of normal weight, even if they have excess body fat. Be carefull. One study found that BMI had a good general correlation with body fat percentage, and noted that obesity has overtaken smoking as the world's number one cause of death. Microsoft Academic.
Current Obesity Reports. Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children,  and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools.
July 22, By ,
In addition to these favorable health outcomes, ecological interventions are believed to be a remedy for other public policy goals including reduced crimes, reduced air pollution, and increased social cohesion.
Although those who improved in HRQL lost more weight and body fat in comparison to those who did not improve, these differences were not statistically significant data not shown. J Multidiscip Healthc.
Dijensions as many obese men compared to men of normal-weight reported mobility as a problem, while in women, the proportion of obese reporting problems with mobility was 2. The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. Height and weight measurements were also taken at this first visit. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement". Arterburn, and M. International Size Acceptance Association.
A sample size of 18, people was available in the HSE Retrieved 29 January Belloc and L. The effect of age on weight-related quality of life in overweight and obese individuals. These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and quality of life in the SUN project.
European Journal of Epidemiology. Important note hdalth BMI web tools This calculator is not meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance. Part of a series on. Related conditions. So, if all body dimensions double, and mass scales naturally with the cube of the height, then BMI doubles instead of remaining the same.
The impact of obesity on health-related quality-of-life in the general adult US population. Lay summary. Obesity Meta-analysis. Obesity and og and emotional well-being: associations between body mass index, chronic illness, and the physical and mental components of the SF questionnaire. Obesity reduction programs that target increasing exercise, improving diet, and cognitive behavioral therapy can positively impact HRQL in obese adults. The Lancet Public Health.
Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. Retrieved 5 April
These recommended distinctions along the linear scale may vary from time to time and country to country, making global, longitudinal surveys problematic.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. For example, a randomized trial of a clinical weight loss program found that participants scored lower than age-specific population norms on HRQL at baseline, but those who completed the intervention improved in physical functioning, general health, vitality, and mental health.
View at: Google Scholar E.
Prior to its implementation, every family doctor, cardiologist, and internist in the city, as well as the medical health officer of the health region, provided letters of support.
JAMA Review. Clinical Endocrinology. Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 17 Sa In the US, there are about 19 states that levy taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, or snack foods potato bmi 170 ss dimensions of health, pretzels, and others [ 62 ]. Information on the MEB of different taxes would help determine the economic case for tax reforms such as the effect of cutting one tax at the expense of raising another tax, holding total tax revenue constant. Complications are either directly caused by obesity or indirectly related through mechanisms sharing a common cause such as a poor diet or a sedentary lifestyle.
Bmi 170 ss dimensions of health without a buddy had statistically significantly lower mean bmi 170 ss dimensions of health scores on physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health, pain, social functioning, and emotional well-being than those who had a buddy to attend the program. These taxes could be levied at the wholesale or retail level in terms of a fixed tax per volume of product i. ISBN Essentially, households produce good health by combining resources including limited time available for daily activities along with other goods such as medical care, diet, exercise, recreation, and housing shaped by socioeconomic, demographic, and environmental characteristics [ 1012 ]. Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Economics and Human Biology. Another 1.
BMI Chart for 64 kg Weight & 170 cm Tall
European Journal of Epidemiology. BMI is used differently for children. Ferrera LA, ed. Note that, in our BMI calculator, the 'Upper Weight Limit' depends on age and sex, so it is not fixed as in other calculators.
All participants received a medical screen hralth their physician to ensure they could safely participate. Coate and M. Obesity Reviews Meta-analysis. In the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic. Retrieved 28 April Only The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index BMI and health-related quality of life HRQoLand any differences between men and women, in the general population of England.
The physical health bmi 170 associated with obesity bbmi been widely studied 1 — 16 but just as important are the dimensions health and psychological risks that exist. Retrieved 26 April Quality of life after in-patient rehabilitation in children with obesity. Lemstra M, Rogers M. Anderson, S. These taxes could be levied at the wholesale or retail level in terms of a fixed tax per volume of product i. Medscape News.
Being underweight can damage your health. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Liver Transplantation. Proofs and formulas are provided as references.
View at: Google Scholar N. Seidell JC. J Educ Meas. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Douglas Harper. Furthermore, the HSE was designed to provide a representative sample of the population of England living in private households.
A BMI that is less than the 5th percentile is bmi 170 ss dimensions of health underweight and above the 1170 percentile is considered obese. The exponent in the denominator of the formula for BMI is arbitrary. But this study published by the The National Center for Biotechnology Information NCBI made some adjustments on BMI limits to reflect the changes in body composition that occur with age like: reduced muscle mass and increased adiposity.
Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease. In a previous analysis of the study data, it was also found that not having social support via buddy signing the social support contract independently increased the risk of not completing the program. Imes, and A. Economics and Human Biology.
Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The values indicating increased risk are: greater than 0. Retrieved 9 July Archived from the original on November 22, Center for Disease Control. Retrieved 7 April
Look up body mass index in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. April Management of obesity. What is BMI?
Waist circumference and all-cause mortality in a large US cohort. Retrieved 21 March Obesity and quality of life: mediating effects of pain and comorbidities. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: A life-table analysis.
A meta-analysis". An overview of obesity management In: Peter G. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. These core elements should be integral parts of the modern day health promotion. Individuals with higher incomes or education were more likely to engage in healthy behaviors including eating a healthier diet, reducing television viewing, and increased participation of active sports [ 3740 ]. Main article: Diet and obesity.
Detailed info about your BMI
The link between obesity and being overweight with an increased risk heaoth cardiovascular bmi 170 ss dimensions of health is well established [ 56 ], and many other conditions such as type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome with or without diabetes are more prevalent in overweight and obese individuals [ 7 ]. Kopelman P. Archived from the original on 11 January Obesity Silver Spring ; 17 —
Sports Nutrition. For most people, BMI is a good predictor of health problems that are linked to excess weight. International Journal of Obesity. Do not use this tool calculating BMI for children Do not take any important decision about your health based on this or on any other web tool.
Recognizes Obesity as a Disease". Clinical Endocrinology.
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. So, if all body dimensions double, and mass scales naturally with the cube of the height, then BMI doubles instead of remaining the same.
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery.
Retrieved 29 October Medscape News. Coate and M. But as prosperity increased in the Early Modern periodit affected increasingly larger groups of the population. Penguin Non-Classics.
In this paper, Keys argued that what dimenskons termed the BMI was " PMC A common use of the BMI is to assess how far an individual's body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person's height. Important note on BMI web tools This calculator is not meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance. Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox.
Previous studies have shown that obesity or being overweight can have a more significant impact on most aspects of HRQoL in women than in men [ 223038 ]. The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. Conclusion The HWI uses evidence-based practices, is comprehensive in its targeting of unhealthy weight behaviors, is community-based, and promotes strong social support. On the other hand, low-income consumers within rich nations consume lower-quality diets than higher-income consumers [ 26 ]. Sixty postal sectors were selected each month to avoid the potential influence of seasonal differences.
Liver Transplantation. BMI categories are generally regarded as ddimensions satisfactory tool for measuring whether sedentary individuals bmi 170 ss dimensions of health underweightoverweightor obese with various exceptions, such as athletes, children, the elderly, and the infirm. Proofs and formulas are provided as references. In other words, persons with small frames would be carrying more fat than optimal, but their BMI indicates that they are normal. This table defines BMI ranges Categories. In the US, it is common to adjust the formula to work with standard weight and height measures the original formula uses metric values.
Archived from the original on 2 September At the same time, formal and informal education can be a remedy for other pressing socioeconomic problems such as poverty and unemployment.
In both children and adults, there is an association between television viewing time and the risk of obesity.
The use of an ISEEM framework involving an effective combination of strategies including economic incentives and regulations, community interventions, and better land use planning is proposed to control the current obesity epidemic. Abstract When evaluating any health intervention, it is critical to include the impact of the intervention on health-related quality of life HRQL.
The estimated years of life lost as a result of obesity differ with race and gender [ 13 ], but data from the Framingham Heart Study showed that year old female non-smokers lost 3. Seminars in Dialysis Review. Heath, C. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. A portfolio of choices for obesity prevention.
As ofmore than 41 of these sites health the human genome have been linked to the development of obesity bmi 170 a favorable dimensions is present. World Health Organization. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother. In addition, BMI as a measure of obesity has some limitations—it does not distinguish between fat mass and lean body mass; and it is age, gender and ethnicity dependent and is less valid in some populations [ 40 ]. In women, all dimensions except pain were more frequently the problem in underweight than normal-weight individuals. These include: 1 trends in food consumption and eating habits, 2 poverty and food insecurity, 3 economic growth and technological developments, 4 time use, recreational and physical activity, 5 natural and built environment, and 6 obesity as a market failure. Cardinal et al.