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Body mass index normative data in research: Why Use BMI?

PubMed Google Scholar 8. In women, there was only a modest increase over the same range.

Language thus takes on performative aspects, wherein the terminology defining health instead become a substitutes for health. These categories are the same for men and women of all body types and ages. However, the specialized nature of medical knowledge constrains the ability of language to convey information, and the extent to which words represent scientific truth. Oxford University Press. Yet there are concerns about the generalizability of SRH across sociodemographic groups Bobak et al. American Journal of Epidemiology3—

  • Over the past several decades, there has been an increase in BMI in the general population. Adult weight change and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  • All adult twins aged 18 and over from both of these sources and their family members were mailed a 16 page 'Health and Lifestyle' questionnaire. Lean body mass in obesity.

  • Mean body weight, height, and body mass index, United States —

  • Association with indexes of plasma glucose-insulin homeostasis.

Publication types

For adults 20 years old and older, BMI is interpreted using standard weight status categories. Aug ; 52 08 : Section Navigation. How is BMI calculated? Vol 2 Brussels, Belgium: C.

  • Perspectives in Biology and Medicine49 4— How good is BMI as an indicator of body fatness?

  • It also increases the chances of being overweight or obese as an adult, as well as the risk of health problems that can come with this.

  • The relatively poor correlation between percent of body fat mass and BMI also clearly has been shown more recently in the NHANES III database in which bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate the fat component of body composition.

  • Generally, it is considered to be due to hormonal changes. Norgan NG.

  • The NHANES data going back to and up to also indicate that the relative mortality risk is lowest in men with a BMI of 25 to 30 in all age groups, that is, from the age of 25 years up to the age of 70 years.

The Biology of Human Starvation. September The accuracy of BMI as an indicator of body fatness also appears to be higher in persons with higher levels of BMI and body fatness During and after puberty, boys accumulate a relatively large amount of lean mass bone and muscle but not fat mass.

This is an important variable in assessing the metabolic as well as mortality consequences of excessive fat accumulation. Table 2 Categories of BMI. However, the s Flapper era introduced abbreviated and revealing dresses. The percentiles are then used to determine the different weight groups:. Clearly, location of fat in this area would help to maintain mobility. In both sexes, these changes are reflected in an increased BMI.

How to Calculate Body Mass Index

A single threshold value of waist girth identifies normal-weight and overweight subjects with excess visceral adipose tissue. Adv Data. This is because the normal amount of body fat changes with age in children and teens, and is different between boys and girls. Download citation.

Ann Epidemiol. Comparisons of normarive body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults. Mathematically, the issue of adjusting body build for differences in height was approached with the concept that the body, particularly the trunk, could be considered as being a 3-dimensional volume or mass. In general, it reflected whether one was narrowly or broadly built. Our approach was similar to that reported by Gallagher et al.

As indicated above, the accumulation of fat with aging in both sexes tends to occur in the truncal area and is associated with an increase in visceral fat. Aug ; 52 08 : The major strength is that study participants were selected at random from a clearly-defined population and this is important when reporting prevalence estimates. To see the formula based on either kilograms and meters or pounds and inches, visit How is BMI calculated? Full size image. Search all BMC articles Search. Issues to be Resolved When Relating BMI With Health Determinants Overall, a major unresolved issue is which factor of the following is more important in the prediction of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, malignancies, or overall death rates.

  • It was developed by Adolphe Quetelet during the 19 th century. Identification and characterization of metabolically benign obesity in humans.

  • Vital Health Stat Normal weight obesity: a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality.

  • Ultimately, the goal is not to chronicle all possible permutations of how BMI is defined across various research contexts and disciplines.

  • However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Section Navigation.

  • Najjar MF, Rowland M. Waist circumference and weight following smoking cessation in a general population: the Inter99 study.

Thus, even if an individual had a low BMI but a relatively increased waist circumference, the risk was increased. Boxy, the issue of adjusting body build for differences in height was approached with the concept that the body, particularly the trunk, could be considered as being a 3-dimensional volume or mass. Transcending General Linear Reality. InQuetelet noted the body mass relationship to height in normal young adults was least affected by height when the ratio of weight to height squared was used rather than merely using the ratio of the weight to height or weight to height raised to the third power.

On This Page. About Adult BMI. BMC Obes 1, 9 Gender, age, ethnic group, and leg length are important variables.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Body mass PubMed Google Scholar. Not only the societal but also the functional and research the medical consequences of an index normative accumulation of data also have been recognized for millennia. He noted that accumulation of fat in the upper part of the body versus the lower part of the body was associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease, diabetes, and also gallstones and gout. Proc Nutr Soc.

  • International Obesity Task Force. International Journal of Epidemiology35 155—

  • Visceral fat and liver fat are independent predictors of metabolic risk factors in men.

  • Critically, these norms are not actionable without a measure like BMI to make them tangible and, by conferring a numerical quantity to these underlying beliefs, actively shaping them as well. For others, an improvement in physical fitness may be salutary.

Improvements in mortality rates also suggest researxh adjustment would be useful. Effect of menopausal status on body composition and abdominal fat distribution. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Subjects: BMI and silhouette data were available on 16 females and 11 males ranging in age from Effect of obesity on total mortality. All of these data were periodically updated.

Nuttall FQ. Journal of Primary Health Caredara 292— Depression examining excess deaths in the U. BMI as a Determinant of Body Fat Mass A hypogonadism and problem with BMI as an index of obesity is that it does not differentiate between body lean mass and body fat mass; that is, a person can have a high BMI but still have a very low fat mass and vice versa. Why is BMI used to measure overweight and obesity? Br J Prev Soc Med.

Background

Nevertheless, there are more specific methods of determining body fat mass than is the BMI. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. To learn more about the trends of adult obesity, visit Adult Obesity Facts. Similarly, the BMI underestimates the prevalence of underweight, suggesting that this body build is apparent in the population, albeit at a low prevalence. Excessive mortality and causes of death in morbidly obese men.

This skewing is not surprising because a markedly reduced BMI, theoretically and actually, would be rezearch with life because of an excessive reduction in lean as well as fat mass as a result of under nutrition 28 or disease. Eur Heart J. Its location also can be determined. Prevalence of overweight and weight gain in the United States. The equation had been derived previously using a subset of men and women from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study for whom whole body DXA scans provided valid measures of body fat mass.

  • Search for:. Associations between regional body fat distribution, fasting plasma free fatty acid levels and glucose tolerance in premenopausal women.

  • New York: Knickerbocker Press; — Keywords: children; flatfoot; foot; foot posture index; paediatric; posture.

  • Sims EA.

  • On This Page.

  • Footnotes The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose.

  • Dec ; 16 1 Clin Physiol.

A single threshold value of waist girth identifies normal-weight and overweight subjects mads excess visceral adipose tissue. Adoption of the BMI as an Index of Obesity InKeys et al 16 severely criticized the validity of Metropolitan Life Insurance published data per se, and the then-published tables of desirable weight for height, as well as the tables used to define people who were underweight or overweight. Effect of menopausal status on body composition and abdominal fat distribution. Gaesser GA.

The android woman—a risky condition. Unfortunately, this distribution is not and has not been similar to those found in other surveys. Adv Data. J Clin Invest.

Partners Spotlight

Fogel RW. Vague J. Abstract Objectives: The foot posture index FPI is an observational tool designed to measure the position of the foot.

Obesity Silver Spring. Sociological Forum23 153— Important information regarding the tesearch of the stored fat also can be determined with some methods. How is BMI interpreted for adults? Sociological perspectives, most notably viewpoints proffered by sociologists of diagnosis, clarify the social framing and normative scientific paradigms of objectivity and standardization that allow diagnostic tools like BMI to ascend the knowledge hierarchy.

Waist circumference and weight following smoking cessation index normative a general population: body mass Inter99 study. PubMed Google Scholar. Thus, using the NIH-suggested criterion based on percent of body fat to define obesity, data research with a BMI of 25, a group that would be considered to be essentially normal, were associated with a body fat mass that varied again between low normal to obese. Lean body mass in obesity. Relative muscle mass is inversely associated with insulin resistance and prediabetes. Issues to be Resolved When Relating BMI With Health Determinants Overall, a major unresolved issue is which factor of the following is more important in the prediction of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, malignancies, or overall death rates.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Open in a separate window. Gov't, P. The distribution curve clearly indicated a skewing toward an increase in BMI, and this trend has continued. Anthropometric determination of fat mass directly has been done using skin-fold thickness measured at various sites.

  • Diab Care. The android woman—a risky condition.

  • Even in a young person, being overweight or obese can cause health problems.

  • Anthropometric correlates to changes in visceral adipose tissue over 7 years in women.

  • Beyond body mass index. The accuracy of BMI as an indicator of body fatness also appears to be higher in persons with higher levels of BMI and body fatness

  • For more information about interpretation for children and teens, read — What is a BMI percentile and how is it interpreted? ABS cat.

Instead, Keys et al, using better documented weight for height normatiive, popularized the Quetelet Index in population-based studies. Relative sitting height and the interpretation of the body mass index. Accepted : 09 June For adults 20 years old and older, BMI is interpreted using standard weight status categories. BMJ, p.

Rogers O. Economic causes and consequences of obesity. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Accessed April 28, CUP Archive. Garn SM.

In a teleological sense, why this occurs, if due to estrogen, is uncertain. Potassium per kilogram fat-free mass and total body potassium: predictions from sex, age, and anthropometry. BMI does not measure body fat directly, but BMI is moderately correlated with more direct measures of body fat 1,2,3.

Comparison of body fatness measurements by BMI and skinfolds vs dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and their relation to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. Ann Hum Biol. Garrow JS, Webster J. Issues to be Resolved When Relating BMI With Health Determinants Overall, a major unresolved issue is which factor of the following is more important in the prediction of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, malignancies, or overall death rates. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. For more information about interpretation for children and teens, read — What is a BMI percentile and how is it interpreted? Acta Anat Basel.

  • Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women.

  • Published online Apr 7. Strain GW, Zumoff B.

  • His PhD degree is in biochemistry.

  • The prevalence estimate for men was greater than the estimate of

  • Comparison of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric and anthropometric measures of adiposity in relation to adiposity-related biologic factors.

Skip directly index normative site data Skip directly body mass page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Datx abdominal obesity have a similar research on cardiovascular disease and diabetes? Garrow JS, Webster J. The dramatic decrease in smoking is likely to have been a contributor. Footnotes The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose. Quetelet LAJ. Similar data were obtained in the NIH—American Association of Retired Persons study of men and women between the ages of 50 and 71 years in the United States and followed for up to 10 years.

The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. The cohort was essentially white; no indigenous Australians participated in the study. Abstract Objectives: The foot posture index FPI is an observational tool designed to measure the position of the foot. How is BMI used? Nutr Today.

However, the BMI indicates weight-for-height without considering differences in body composition and the contribution of body fat to overall body weight. Confronting a rising tide of eating disorders and obesity: treatment vs. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. Quetelet LAJ.

Muquardt; Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Soc Theory Health. Comparison of body composition in middle-aged and elderly males using computed tomography.

READ TOO: Atomic Int C Example Bmi

Some mathematical maws of weight-for-height indices used as measures of adiposity. Experimental obesity in man: cellular character of the adipose tissue. Insulin resistance syndrome, body mass index and the risk of ischemic heart disease. However, far less work has considered the unique role and power of measurement in complicating our understanding of the unhealthiness of obesity or excess weight. Transcending General Linear Reality.

The calculation is based on the following formulas:. Mortality record for Overweight and obesity in bodu United States: prevalence and trends, — Strain GW, Zumoff B. The net effect of the above is that the chronic diseases of aging have become more of a public health problem, but better treatments are widely available.

Beyond body mass index. Three limitations of the body mass index. A survey of heights and weights of adults in Great Britain, Regardless of the terminology and population reference issues, at present the BMI is the currency by which we define the obesity issue throughout the Western world. Fact sheet No.

Int J Obes. Thus, obese people tend to marry other obese people and, parenthetically, to produce obese children. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. Is BMI interpreted the same way for children and teens as it is for adults? Preston SH.

In any event, it results in a lower center normative data gravity among women compared with men. Later, it was shown that the rezearch body mass index for height actually scaled best research weight for height when the height was raised to the 1. New York: Knickerbocker Press; — Smoking impairs appetite per se. Review: long-term impact of bariatric surgery on body weight, comorbidities, and nutritional status. Single computed tomography CT slices of the abdomen and thigh can be used to obtain 2 dimensions of those fat depots from which a 3-dimensional fat area can be reconstructed.

  • Methods of Estimating Body Fat Mass and Location of the Fat At present, simple, accurate methods for measuring percent of body fat and, in particular, body fat in different fat depots are not available. Given these limitations, it is unsurprising that the use of BMI as a proxy for health bleeds into, and overtakes, the definition of health itself.

  • Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus in the Framingham Heart Study. Managing the Global Epidemic of Obesity.

  • The result was that thinness was not only desirable but also required. This was considered to be important because most of body fat is in the trunk.

  • For example, the distribution of BMIs in adult American men and women was determined in in individuals Figure. Kuczmarski RJ.

Endocr Rev. In examining excess deaths in the U. BMI, however, serves as a surveillance mechanism setting a standard by which changes in population health can be tracked Fletcher ; Nicholls ; Timmermans and Epstein Blackburn H, Parlin RW. Indeed, it may be misleading in this regard, particularly in men. In this study, both the crude and adjusted relative risk of death among men was actually the lowest in those with a BMI of

Silver Spring14 3pp. Garn SM. Review: long-term impact of bariatric surgery on body weight, comorbidities, and reeearch status. Using linear regression, a BMI of Generally, it is considered to be due to hormonal changes. This is because the normal amount of body fat changes with age in children and teens, and is different between boys and girls. This also can be done using magnetic resonance imaging, but magnetic resonance imaging is very expensive.

A pitched battle over life span. Furthermore, BMI appears to be as strongly correlated with various metabolic and disease outcome as are these more direct measures of body fatness 4,5,6,7,8,9. St Paul Pioneer Press. Original article underweight, overweight and obesity: relationships with mortality in the year follow-up of the Canada Fitness Survey. Not only is thigh fat greater in women than in men, but also women generally have a preponderance of slow-twitch fibers, whereas men have a preponderance of fast-twitch fibers in their quadriceps muscles, as do upper-body-obese women, 82 suggesting either genetic or earlier developmental differentiation events.

All rights reserved. Silver Spring14 3pp. As indicated above, by squaring the height, it reduces the contribution of leg length in the equation and tends to normalize the body mass distribution at each level of height; that is, it reduces the effect of a variance in height in the relationship of weight to height. Nephrol Dial Transplant.

  • Morant GM. Weight and values in public health.

  • Relative sitting height and the interpretation of the body mass index.

  • Instead, Keys et al, using better documented weight for height data, popularized the Quetelet Index in population-based studies.

  • Drafted the article: JAP. Acta Anat Basel.

  • Is BMI interpreted the same way for children and teens as it is for adults?

  • Garrow JS, Webster J. The correlation between the BMI and body fatness is fairly strong 1,2,3,7but even if two people have the same BMI, their level of body fatness may differ

JAMA 20; 3 : research Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and reesearch strategies. Such confounders as well as the known clustering of obesity in families, the normative data role of genetic factors in the development of body mass index, the location in which excessive fat accumulates, its role in the development of type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and so on, need to be considered before promulgation of public health policies that are designed to apply to the general population and are based on BMI data alone. Learn More. Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach. Commentary: understanding the epidemiology of overweight and obesity—a real global public health concern. Individuals without valid whole body scans 21 men and 31 women were excluded.

Body fat rwsearch childhood in healthy Danish children: agreement of BMI, waist circumference, skinfolds with dual X-ray body mass index normative data in research. For children and teens, the interpretation of BMI depends upon age and sex. Flegal KM. In those with diabetes, the BMI was Discrimination begins in childhood and results in serious emotional scars. BMI and Self-Rated Health: Less than Kin, More of a Kind While relying on BMI at the individual level is questionable, some of its shortcomings are outweighed by the insights gained from its use in aggregate analyses of population health. Namely, medical categories for diagnoses e.

Introduction

Thus, using the NIH-suggested criterion based on percent of body fat to define obesity, subjects with a BMI of 25, a group dats would be considered to be body mass index normative data in research normal, were associated with a body fat mass that varied again between low normal to obese. Excessive loss of skeletal muscle mass in older adults with type 2 diabetes. This positivistic outlook on BMI as a stable, valid measure of healthy weight supports its use in analytic models and provides confidence in the results. BMI can be a screening tool, but it does not diagnose the body fatness or health of an individual.

  • Fogel RW.

  • Divide that by your height in inches, squared:. A comparison of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations and BMI in predicting body fatness and cardiovascular disease risk factor levels in children.

  • Also in this study, bocy overall greatest mortality risk was in those individuals with the lowest BMI and not those with the highest BMI. However, the percent of lean body mass was the same; that is, the increased BMI in those with diabetes was not due only to an excessive accumulation of fat.

  • PLoS Med. Garrow JS.

How is BMI interpreted for adults? Why calories count: from science to politics. Learn More. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Indeed, he is considered to be the patriarch of statisticians. Am J Cardiol.

Differences were observed between women and men in terms of desired body size and discrepancy scores, with women preferring smaller sizes. The study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council Hypogonadism and depression of Australia and the Geelong Regional Medical Foundation, but they played no part in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. Our results suggest that All of the previously mentioned methods use certain assumptions in the calculation of body fat mass, and all are subject to potential error.

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Minus Related Pages. N Engl J Med. Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups. Journal of Affective Disorders3— J Gerontol.

MeSH terms

We suggest that optimal sex-and-age-specific thresholds be implemented for defining underweight and obesity in terms of body fat mmass recognise that such definitions will depend on risk assessment for disease, morbidity and mortality. Indeed, in those older than 70 years, there was little impact on the death rate even if they were in the obese category. This has resulted in predictions of a public health disaster. For more information about interpretation for children and teens, read — What is a BMI percentile and how is it interpreted?

Body mass reseagch and measures of body fat for defining obesity and underweight: a cross-sectional, population-based study. And it may directly increase the risk for certain health problems later in life, including some kinds of cancer. Morant GM. Similar data were obtained in the NIH—American Association of Retired Persons study of men and women between the ages of 50 and 71 years in the United States and followed for up to 10 years.

References 1. Beginning in the 17th century, 61 the general underlying theme in all the studies done on weight nprmative in populations is an increase in height as well as weight. Please review our privacy policy. Body weight and longevity. Visceral fat and liver fat are independent predictors of metabolic risk factors in men. Garn SM. Perhaps the distribution is programmed by gender earlier in life.

However, it has been coopted for this use because it is a readily obtained metric. BMI does not measure body fat directly, but BMI is moderately correlated with more direct measures of body fat 1,2,3. Based on data in the literature, there are several additional problems in determining associations between BMI and overall death rate or, more specifically, cardiovascular events or death rates.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Comparison of body composition in middle-aged and elderly males using computed tomography. BMI is an inexpensive and easy screening method for weight category—underweight, mzss weight, overweight, and obesity. Eknoyan G. Acknowledgments The study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council NHMRC of Australia and the Geelong Regional Medical Foundation, but they played no part in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

This has resulted in predictions of a public health disaster. From an anatomical and metabolic perspective, the term obesity should datx to an excessive accumulation of body fat triacylglycerolsand upon these grounds, the accuracy of the BMI as a determinant of body fat mass has been repeatedly questioned, 1639 — 4146 — 48 because it clearly has limitations in this regard. In examining excess deaths in the U. Minus Related Pages.

Garrow JS. Indeed, he is considered to be the patriarch of statisticians. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; Inflammation- sensitive plasma proteins are associated with future weight gain.

Google Scholar. The accuracy of BMI as an indicator of body body mass index normative data in research also appears to be higher in persons with higher levels of BMI and body fatness Similar data were obtained in the NIH—American Association of Retired Persons study of men and women between the ages of 50 and 71 years in the United States and followed for up to 10 years. New York: Knickerbocker Press; — Visceral fat and liver fat are independent predictors of metabolic risk factors in men. Weight cycling.

From an anatomical and metabolic perspective, the term obesity should refer to an excessive accumulation of body fat triacylglycerolsand upon these daata, the accuracy of the BMI as a determinant of body fat mass has been repeatedly questioned, 1639 — body mass index normative data in research46 — 48 because it clearly has limitations in this regard. Smoking, smoking cessation, and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Thus if a tall person were simply a scaled-up version of a short person, weight would increase approximately with the cube of height. Review: long-term impact of bariatric surgery on body weight, comorbidities, and nutritional status. BMI is calculated the same way for both adults and children. Despite all the criticisms, the Metropolitan Life Tables criteria for defining obesity were widely used in the United States until the early s.

  • Andres in summarized 16 different population-based studies in which anthropometrically determined obesity was not associated with increased mortality rate.

  • Health implications of obesity.

  • Estimates of abdominal and thigh fat depots also can be estimated using CT slices. These changes are likely to be due to an increase in high-quality dietary protein animal productsas well as an increased availability of total food energy in the diet.

  • Conversely, the lack of biomedical certainty regarding causal mechanisms linking SRH to mortality and morbidity, and the implication that social factors may confound the association between SRH and objective health e.

The latter are currently being much better treated than in that era. As indicated above, joy bauer overweight accumulation of fat with aging in both sexes tends to occur in the truncal area and is associated with an increase body mass index normative data in research visceral fat. This push towards empiricism necessitated the disambiguation of the patient as individual and patient as a body — a body that could be measured, diagnosed, and treated. The BMI ranges are based on the effect excessive body fat has on disease and death and are reasonably well related to adiposity. This is not only due to societal concepts of an ideal degree of fatness, but also due to thinness being a goal promulgated by the fashion industry and reinforced by commercial advertising.

Discrimination begins in childhood and results in serious emotional scars. BMC Res Notes. Baumgartner RN: Body composition in healthy aging. The BMI expresses body weight kg relative to stature height, m 2 and it should be noted that adjustment for height in this index is suboptimal [ 18 ]. Girls tend to accumulate relatively large amounts of fat during and after puberty, particularly in the peripelvic and thigh region; boys do not. Healthy Weight, Nutrition, and Physical Activity.

Journal of General Internal Medicine21 3msss Experimental obesity in man: cellular character of the adipose tissue. Obesity surgery and the management of excess: exploring the body multiple. Like any other measure it is not perfect because it is only dependant on height and weight and it does not take into consideration different levels of adiposity based on age, physical activity levels and sex.

  • Effect of obesity on total mortality. Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups.

  • January 30, Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins.

  • Why calories count: from science to politics.

  • Indeed, it may be misleading in this regard, particularly in men. It is time to move beyond the BMI as a surrogate for determining body fat mass.

  • Search all BMC articles Search. Many obese people do not have cardiovascular risk factors, and in those who do, BMI no longer correlates with cardiovascular events 97 — when the untoward effects of these other factors are factored out.

  • BMI as a Determinant of Body Fat Mass Normaitve particular problem with BMI as an index of obesity is that it does not differentiate between body lean mass and body fat mass; that is, a person can have a high BMI but still have a very low fat mass and vice versa. What are other ways to assess excess body fatness besides BMI?

Recent work body mass index normative data in research medical sociology has provided critical insights into distinguishing between obesity as a condition with severe individual- and population-level health consequences, and obesity as a socially undesirable, stigmatizing construct opposing thinness as the healthy ideal. Harvard T. Br J Prev Soc Med. Regulatory objectivity and the generation and management of evidence in medicine. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases57 4—

The robustness of the Body mass index relationship reflects the numerous health conditions and co-morbidities associated with an elevated Normative data. It could represent a research of maintaining body fat during pregnancy without an undue expansion in abdominal girth. Calculate BMI by dividing weight in pounds lbs by height in inches in squared and multiplying by a conversion factor of This was attributed to the presence in the population of wasting diseases such as tuberculosis that resulted in an increased death rate. Body weight and mortality among women. Screening and counseling for childhood obesity: results from a national survey. All of these data were periodically updated.

Furthermore, accumulation of body fat in healthy bodies is generally accompanied by a compensatory response from the musculoskeletal system, acting inedx mechanoreceptors in muscle and bone, as it adapts to better cope with the increasing mechanical load [ 19 ]. In general, it reflected whether one was narrowly or broadly built. The BMI expresses body weight kg relative to stature height, m 2 and it should be noted that adjustment for height in this index is suboptimal [ 18 ]. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe.

N Engl J Med. September See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Obes Rev. Inthe WHO developed international growth standards for children from birth to age 5, using healthy breast fed infants as the norm; 17 inthe WHO extended those standards to develop growth charts for children ages 5 to

  • The relatively poor correlation between percent of body fat mass and BMI in males has been known for many years 16 and was clearly shown in a study in which percent of body fat was determined by a densitometric method.

  • Growth at Adolescence. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

  • The death rate from malignancies is decreasing, and there has been a remarkable improvement in longevity, which is continuing.

  • Ann Epidemiol.

  • Normal weight obesity: a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality. This also is the case in artifacts from other cultures in the Middle East in that era.

Nutr Today. The government of girth. Kuczmarski RJ. However, athletes may have a high BMI because of increased muscularity rather than increased body fatness.

Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. It now is generally accepted that a relationship between BMI and mortality risk should be applied only to large populations. However, these data were obtained in the s and s in an aggregate population with a mean BMI of Growth at Adolescence. Regardless of an observed increased skewing in the BMI distribution, it is important to note that several recent studies indicate that for most of us being a bit overweight preobese? J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

In my opinion, the major focus on prevention and treatment should be on those unfortunate individuals who are grossly obese, mechanically compromised, and who are at very high risk for death. Our approach was similar to that reported by Gallagher et al. At present, simple, accurate methods for measuring percent of body fat and, in particular, body fat in different fat depots are not available. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe.

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