Proenca, M. E—E, Int J Brain Cognit Sci. Pharmacol Rep. O'Brien, A.
Anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects of plants and mushrooms. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: structural and functional differences.
Research use: Bipolar disorder, Neuronal growth and transport studies, Neuroscience, Schizophrenia.
References 1 International Diabetes Federation.
Melanocortin-4 receptor signalling: importance for weight regulation and obesity treatment. Leptin-and leptin receptor-deficient rodent models: rrsearch for human type 2 diabetes. A new rat model of type 2 diabetes: the fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rat. In addition, streptozotocin and alloxan can cause extrapancreatic genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, including the disruption of the hypothalamic—pituitary—gonadal axis 6364 and changes in hyperglycemia-unrelated hepatic gene expression, 65 making it difficult to distinguish the effect caused by pancreatic cytotoxicity from those caused by extrapancreatic sites. A study conducted in order to study the expression of the ob gene in rat adipose tissue through the control of their diets.
Diabetes ; induces : — J Investig Dermatol. These diets provide animals with a mixture of diet induced obesity animal models for research, salt, and high fat drawn from solid foods [ 9596 ]. However, as a limitation that currently exists, it is important to find a model that achieve a similar obesity degree in both, males and females, in order to study both sexes in the same experiment. For example, the identity of the molecular defect s underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance can be studied from skeletal muscle biopsy samples, and whole-body insulin sensitivity can be studied via hyperinsulinemic—euglycemic clamp from human subjects on a given dietary regime. For this, they investigate the connection between the types of fat, meal timings and size, and weight gain as well as the reversibility of diet-induced obesity. Princen Scientific Reports Effects of high-fat diets on fetal growth in rodents: a systematic review Julian K.
Research Feed. R—R, modwls According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria Table 1articles were selected for full reading, articles were excluded and 20 articles were not available for reading, due to restricted access to their abstracts Fig. Research use: Neuroscience, Tomato fluorescence, Expression of td, Optogenetics, Tomato fluorescence when Cre-recombinase is introduced. This accumulation in organs other than the adipose tissue, such as the liver, can also lead to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, since saturated fatty acids interfere in the activity of insulin receptor and glucose transporters [ 23 ]. Comparison between cafeteria and high-fat diets in the induction of metabolic dysfunction in mice.
Lab Anim. The reduction of hormone level such as estrogen level leads to obesity and its metabolic sequelae.
Therefore, any study that used other ways to induce obesity was excluded. Kline, R.
Introduction Obesity is a global public health issue with high prevalence in all age groups [ 12 ]. To choose an animal model for a study of diet-induced obesity, it should be considered that rats and mice respond differently to this type of diet; in addition, strain, sex and age, affect the response to the obesogenic diet, with young animals and males being more sensitive to obesity-related comorbidities.
Birmingham, and A. Levin et al.
Mol Nutr Food Res. Ogawa, and Y.
Monogenic models of obesity.
Insulin resistance in KK mice precedes the onset of obesity [ 33 ]. View author publications. CiteSeerX Spironolactone improves glucose and lipid metabolism by ameliorating hepatic steatosis and inflammation and suppressing enhanced gluconeogenesis induced by high-fat and high-fructose diet.
Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions. Joost, and M. Rhesus macaques Strain: M. York, and G. Smith, B. Articles in humans, in cell culture, in non-rodent animals, as well as review articles, articles that did not have obesity induction and book chapters were also excluded. Obesity in these models is due to leptin signaling deficiency.
BioMed Research International
Cafeteria diet increased adiposity in comparison to high fat diet in young male rats. Although these models provide important information about the pathomechanisms of OSA, large-animal-based research is technically difficult. Saito, and Y. Kline, R. Bultman, E.
On jnduced other side, although the pair-feeding method limits the amount of diet to which animals will have access to, there are cases in which pair-fed diets can achieve different weight gain outcomes, something that has been attributed to the differences in macronutrient composition [ 32 ]. Brennick, A. France Cryopreserved. With regard to the mechanisms of tumorigenesis in obesity, they found that obesity is associated with increased intracellular transcriptional factor STAT signaling and liver inflammation [ 81 ]. Therefore, control diets must have a nutritional basis similar to obesogenic diets, which helps to interpret the results without bias [ 8 ]. Ogawa, and Y.
PLoS One ; 8 : e
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
A new animal diet based on human Western cor in a robust diet-induced obesity model: comparison to high-fat and cafeteria diets in term of metabolic and gut microbiota disruption. Additionally, DIO must contain a low concentration of fibers [ 25 ], since these nutrients are capable to induce satiety and increase the production of GLP-1 and SCFA, which stimulate a lower energy consumption [ 24 ].
View at: Google Scholar S.
Additionally, the mitochondria of the brown adipose tissue are also affect by DIO impairing glucose metabolism [ 51 ]. These cases have resulted in the increase of metabolic syndrome in the mouse models as well as resulted in obesity.
They result from excessive eating that is made up of researcn in the energy expenditure, a result of sympathetic activation of brown adipocyte. Transgenic model of obesity To understand the mechanism, transgenic models of obesity have been created. Furthermore, mice with NPY2R knockout develop paradoxical obesity [ 86 ]. Most publications may shed light on the pathology of obesity by forcing HFD or genetic mutations in rodents; however, the conditions are very different from the real problems that humans are facing. Matsuoka, Y.
Nutr Res. Sapolsky, J. Coleman and K. Miller, C. Launch Research Feed.
BioMed Research International
The treatment and prevention of obesity involves the control of body weight and adiposity through a negative energy balance in which both, diet and physical activity, are important. Knockout corner: neurobehavioural consequences of a serotonin 5-HT2C receptor gene mutation. Kuhn, and J.
This ectopic accumulation occurs as a consequence of the downregulation of AMPK [ 3561 ] and upregulation of SREBP-1c [ 61 ], which generates lipogenesis, and increases the synthesis of fatty acids by the liver [ 23 ]. For example, loss of GPR40 a G-protein-coupled receptor expressed predominantly in pancreatic islets mediating free fatty acid-induced insulin secretion protects mice from HFD-induced diabetes, 81 whereas the same gene ablation fails to protect mice from HFD-induced diabetes in another study. So, the purpose of this review was to identify the key points for the induction of obesity through diet, as well as identifying which are the necessary endpoints to be achieved when inducing fat gain. Therefore, for the development of experimental therapies and drugs, rodent models are superior. Virador, and V. Metabolism ; 62 : —
Murphy, and S. The markers used to assess the development of obesity include body weight and fat total, subcutaneous and visceral gain, but other parameters related to inflammation, hormone concentration, blood glycemia, lipid profile, and liver health are often desired. Kim, S. Very complex Specialized facilities needed Long life cycle The maodel is not well characterized. A new animal diet based on human Western diet in a robust diet-induced obesity model: comparison to high-fat and cafeteria diets in term of metabolic and gut microbiota disruption. View at: Google Scholar E. The obesity gene was taken to another level in with the discovery of ectopic agouti expression mice, which showed the cloning of the agouti gene.
References 1. Antibody production. Therefore, low levels of brown adipose tissue can contribute to the perpetuation of obesity. View 1 excerpt, references background.
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J Physiol Biochem. S2CID
Some research shows that nightly eating, low eating frequency, and large meal size may contribute to diet-induced obesity. Surwit, C.
The study found that genes in both fatty acid metabolism and oxidation showed different regulation patterns between obese human and rats. Nephrology dialysis transplantation.
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American Journal of Physiology. Kuhn, and J. Churchill, B. Main article: Social determinants of obesity. The diet-offering method directly affects consumption and the ability to induce obesity.
Article Google Scholar. Hyperphagia is maintained throughout the access, but higher energy intake is significant during the first 1—2 weeks [ 90 ]. Ikeda, A. M16 Mouse The M16 mouse, an outbred mouse model of early-onset polygenic obesity, was developed through long-term selection for 3- to 6-week weight gain in an ICR background [ 29 ].
This theory suggests that there are strain-specific differences in food selection behavior, which could potentially be mediated by differences in brain neuropeptides [ — ]. Dickie, and D. Darvishzadeh, J.
The NZO plaza of mice displays obesity due to increased body weight within the initial 2 months, which may be slimming diet pantip to hyperphagia related to leptin resistance even with hereditarily normal leptin and leptin receptors [ 68 ]. British Journal of Pharmacology. Nat Rev Endocrinol. It is worthy to note here that each polygene only contributes a fraction to the build-up of obesity [ 59 ].
Clin Transl Gastroenterol. Find research models Discover health and genetic monitoring reports on our resource page.
Monogenic models of obesity. Cell Metab ; 7 :
By knowing the benefits and limitations of animal models of obesity, researchers may be at liberty to select the appropriate one for the study of obesity.
This resistance to leptin may increase the weight gain of the rats. Obesity Surgery.
The KK mouse was developed diet induced obesity animal models for research Japan with selective inbreeding for large body size [ 30 ]. Metabolic differences between obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Kelly, R. View 9 excerpts, references background and methods. Research use: Infectious disease, Pain and neuroscience, Retinal ischemia research, Toxicology. Such activation of type 2 deiodinase results in the conversion of thyroxine T4 to triiodothyronine T3which enhances energy expenditure [ 51 ].
Int Resewrch Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol. According to the indian diet plan to lose weight india and exclusion criteria Table 1articles were selected for full reading, articles were excluded and 20 articles were not available for reading, due to restricted access to their abstracts Fig. With regard to the mechanisms of tumorigenesis in obesity, they found that obesity is associated with increased intracellular transcriptional factor STAT signaling and liver inflammation [ 81 ]. Instead, humans tend to enjoy eating such diets. Charukeshi; Pippin, John J. It is well accepted that diet has far-reaching effects on the physiology of lab animals.
Animal Models of Human Pathology
In this paper, we will summarize reports associated with obesity-related pathology using animal models and also propose further demand for animal research models to address the worldwide obesity epidemic. OLETF rats are widely used in obesity and diabetes research. Kuhn, C.
The researchers found that the mice injected with propolis had less adipose tissueglucoseand cholesterol than the mice who were not administered propolis. Burlet, P. Single-species versus dual-species probiotic supplmentation as an emerging therapeutic strategy for obesity. As the amount of stored fat increases, the liver starts to suffer oxidative damage [ 16 ] and, as a result of hepatocyte lysis, the serum concentrations of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase [ 162168 ].
This change seems to be especially related to saturated fatty acid-rich [ 27 ] obesogenic diets Table 2. Krasney, and G. Office of Research Integrity. The reports regarding the role of leptin in carcinogenesis are still very controversial and require further followup studies.
Diabetes Insulin Resistance
Hendricks, L. Research use: Oncology, Immunology, Leukemia, Transplantation. Additionally, diets with high concentration of long-chain fatty acids can also alter the serum lipid profile, since, after hydrolysis, these fatty acids can be used for the synthesis of new triacylglycerol molecules [ 27 ].
Universality in oxygen evolution electrocatalysis on oxide surfaces. Hypertens Res. Continuing indian diet plan to lose weight india trend of the model's usage in determining causes of obesity, a group of researchers notice the changes across the diets of several Americans and conduct an experiment to understand why obesity was up when fat consumption was down. Table 3 Changes in markers related to body weight and adipose tissue depots Full size table.
Neuropeptide Y receptor gene expression in the primate amygdala predicts anxious temperament and foor metabolism. Vertino, and F. Competing interests The authors declare that they do not have any competing interests. Fasting of mice: a review. The composition of the diet and calorie overconsumption are also relevant to the development of obesity. Very complex Specialized facilities needed Long life cycle The maodel is not well characterized.
General studies, Surgical, Infectious disease, Toxicology. Park, J. Bodkin, J. Moustaid, M. Caloric excess is essential for the development of obesity [ 19 ]. The disease may progress further to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis NASHwhich may include hepatocellular injury, ballooning i.
Non-human primate model of obesity The non- human primate model exhibits obesity, which is similar to human obesity. Academic Press. Curr Protoc Pharmacol. Qiu, S.
In diet induced obesity, humans and other great apes Hominoidea for research from Old World monkeys Cercopithecoidea a relatively recent 25 million animal models ago [ 58 ]. That can introduce hyperphagia in the organism in effort of increasing their metabolism to generate heat energy for the body. Bultman, and S. Amarsi, C. Since many types of cancer can be affected by environmental factors, having control over these factors is key to generating reproducible, meaningful data. Contact us Submission enquiries: Access here and click Contact Us General enquiries: info biomedcentral. With the sugar solution, the animals had free access to regular chow food, fat-rich pellets, and a bottle of tap water.
Obesity Rev. Charukeshi; Pippin, John J.
First study tested to find correlation between obesity and palatable foods high in fats and lipids, but no conclusion could be reached.
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Additional information Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Laboratory animals as surrogate models of human obesity.
Open in a separate window. Academic Editor: Monica Fedele. Obes Rev. Assessment of diet-induced obese rats as an obesity model by comparative functional genomics.
General purpose, Immunology, Only approved mouse strain for use in the Local Lymph Node Assay, a diet induced obesity animal models for research alternative research method for evaluating the allergic contact dermatitis potential of chemicals and compounds. Proenca, M. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Schwartz, and Y.
Find research models
Article PubMed Google Scholar Anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects of plants and mushrooms. Ehrich, J.
Peterson, and G.
Overweight and obesity are a worldwide public health problem.
Short life cycle Low maintenance cost. High-carbohydrate diets can be used alone or in combination with a HFD.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Visceral fat is the depot that surrounds the abdominal organs. Eur J Nutr ; 52 : 97— In contrast, Gonzalez et al. But, due to changes in people's lifestyles, with less physical activity and shifts in eating behavior, the study of alternatives for the treatment of obesity, such as functional foods, and bioactive compounds, is gaining increasing relevance [ 2 ].
Mynatt, N. Mathews and E. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. Although these models provide important information about the pathomechanisms of OSA, large-animal-based research is technically difficult. Eisen, and D. Nature Immunology. Publication types Review.
Animal Models of Human Pathology
View at: Google Scholar A. In this model, canulation is possible; however, the model is very complex and complicated as specialized equipment and facilities are required to carry out the processes. Exotic model of obesity The model comprises wild animals that go through original designs of disparity in their fat mass, such as seals and bats [ 90 ].
Because of the commonalities between the two, rats may prove to be helpful in the search for the cause of human obesity. Duhl, M. The resulting data found some mice the B6 mouse responded to diet-induced obesity most similarly to humans with regards to several parameters including fat content, relative organ size, and general body composition. Zhang, K. Paigen, and K. ISSN Similar degrees of obesity induced by diet or aging cause strikingly diferente immunologic and metabolic outcomes.
Lee, and J. Ensuring your study animals have the most appropriate diet is critical to maintaining consistent, reliable research data. The researchers found that the mice injected with propolis had less adipose tissueglucoseand cholesterol than the mice who were not administered propolis. Eur J Nutr. More Filters. The first animal model reported to exhibit sleep apnea was the English bulldog [ 97 ]. Carmina and R.
Brown adipose tissue: A human perspective. Mouse models of diabetic neuropathy. A y mutation in agouti results in frank diabetes with nephropathy [ 34 ].
High-fat diet-stimulated body weight gain and increased plasma glucose more in SM than LG mice [ ]. Older TSOD mice display similar lesion as diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy [ 28 ]. High-carbohydrate high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular remodeling in rats. Cell Metab ; 16 : — Evans, and K. Bombesin-like receptor 3 Brs3 expression in glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, neurons is required for regulation of energy metabolism.
Research use: Develops systemic lupus erythematosis. People with the MS are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Background Citations. There are mouse strain-specific differences in responses to the HFD Table 1 [ 48 ]. Nutr Res. Allan, E.
Accepted : 02 March Obesity phenotype [ 330333435 ], as well as metabolic changes typical of obesity—such as increased glucose intolerance—, [ 30 ] becomes more apparent after a longer exposure to an obesogenic diet. At 25 weeks of age, male OLETF rats display hyperplasia of pancreatic islets, but islets become atrophic by 60 weeks of age [ 4647 ].
Gov't Review. Although the effects of metformin in obesity-related cancer biology are not clear, these reports suggest that the tumor suppressive effect of metformin may involve the amelioration of a systemic metabolic profile associated with a high-energy diet and obesity. Millar, M. As shown on Table 2these studies reported age- sex- strain- and diet-dependent phenotypic variability for example, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, body weight, etc. Retrieved November 9, The commonly reported T2DM-related metabolic perturbations induced by HFD in rodents include weight gain and increased carcass lipid content, higher degree of insulin resistance and increased levels of plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, cholesterol and triglycerides. Anthropometrical Parameters and Markers of Obesity in Rats.
View author publications. Diet-induced obesity leads to metabolic dysregulation in offspring via endoplasmic reticulum stress in a sex-specific manner. Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin reduces cancer incidence in type 2 diabetic patients. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interest.
C York, and G. Research use: General studies, Immunology, Oncology, Transplantation, Adjuvant-induced arthritis, Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.
It was found that animal models had a stimulating diet induced obesity, increasing blood pressure and increasing the risk of hypertension. The challenges of translating high-fat-fed rodents for research human obesity and diabetes". KDs restrict carbohydrate consumption in order to limit circulating levels of glucose and, therefore, promote production and utilization of ketone bodies as a primary fuel source. Resistant maltodextrin or fructooligosaccharides promotes GLP-1 production in male rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet, and partially reduces energy intake and adiposity.
The commonly reported T2DM-related metabolic perturbations induced by HFD in rodents include weight gain and increased carcass lipid content, higher degree of insulin resistance and increased levels of plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, cholesterol and triglycerides. Table 1. Vaughn, L. Calle and R.
Transgenic model of obesity To understand the mechanism, transgenic models of obesity have been created. Anthropometrical Parameters and Markers of Obesity in Rats. Eur J Nutr. Keywords: Advantages, limitations, monogenicmodel, obesity, polygenic model, surgical model.
Accelerated senescence studies, Age-dependent disorders, Brain atrophy, Deficits in learning and memory, Emotional disorders Aging process, Geriatric pathogenesis, Hearing impairment, Hyperinflation of the lungs, Senile amyloidosis apolipoprotein A-IISenile osteoporosis. Main article: Infectobesity. Discover health and genetic monitoring reports on our resource page. Two varieties of obese pigs were also found to be good models of OSA [ 9899 ].
Figure 1. Diet-induced Mice and rats Nutritional It diet induced obesity animal models for research a combination of genetic and dietary influences Quick induction of obesity and insulin resistance Strong similarity to human situation Cost effective Best stimulation of all aspects of human metabolic syndrome X Poor standardization Long duration They sometimes become overtly obese 5. Fernette, E. High-fat diet triggers inflammation-induced cleavage of SIRT1 in adipose tissue to promote metabolic dysfunction. Factors involved in white-to-brown adipose tissue conversion and in thermogenesis: a review. Dhahbi, P.
D; Kirkman, E. First study tested to find correlation between obesity and palatable foods high in fats and lipids, but no conclusion could be reached. Kelly, R. Summary for the recommended hypotheses on the mechanisms through which obesity can cause several diseases. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions.
Thus, it is likely that when the diet is offered according to the ad libitum or free access methods, food anima, is stimulated [ 19 ]. Acylcarnitine and amino acid profiling in plasma and tissues of NZO mice as a model for obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear.
Calorie overconsumption leads to an increase in body weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation [ 2101519 ]. Kudo, M. Anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects of plants and mushrooms. Proenca, M. Brown, K. Results Citations. Zucker and T.
Obesity in humans is associated with the incidence of several cancers. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain obsity interaction between obesity and cancer development, including the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, increased insulin resistance, elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1and increased production of sex steroid hormones and adipocytokines [ 76 — 80 ]. Obesity Facts. Sixteen hours of fasting differentially affects hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity in mice. Requires technical know how. Amarsi, C. Therefore, intensive and continuous efforts should be made to establish novel obesity-associated animal models that mimic human health problems.
The authors declare diet induced obesity animal models for research they do not have any competing interests. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria Table 1articles were selected for full reading, articles were anijal and 20 articles were not available for reading, due to restricted access to their abstracts Fig. Iwatsuka, and Z. Eisen, and D. Deletion of the mouse Slc30a8 gene encoding zinc transporter-8 results in impaired insulin secretion. Studies carried out in rats suggest that there is an abrupt hormone deprivation caused by oophorectomy surgical removal of the ovaries [ ].
ISBN Young male mice have bigger weight gain than females; however, when they are middle-aged the opposite occurs, and female mice have bigger weight gain than males. In addition, diets produced from food may contain food additives, which make it difficult to assess the real effect of nutrients on the development of obesity [ 8 ]. Apparatus and methods for treatment of morbid obesity.
There are several models of producing obesity in animals, which can be classified as 1 Genetic and 2 Non-genetic. Hepatic steatosis happens because the excess of fat present in the body is stored in this organ causing intracytoplasmatic accumulation of triglycerides.
Interestingly such high-KAA mixture has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in elderly type 2 diabetic subjects [ 56 ]. This requires that researchers understand the differences between grain-based GB chows and purified ingredient diets, and unfortunately, many investigators immunologists or not are unaware of these differences.
According to obesity animal models studies, time, frequency, and quantity of feedings are diet induced behavioral factors in the For research model. J Diet Suppl. NZO mice increase their body weight rapidly during the first 2 months of life because of hyperphagia that may be associated with leptin resistance, although they have genetically normal leptin and leptin receptors. Bansback, Z. Fahy, and S.
HFD-feeding: a comparative analysis of intra- and inter-laboratory variability As discussed, HFD-induced metabolic syndrome in rodents is plagued by many confounding factors, including, but not limited to, the type of diet and control dietduration of exposure to diet, animal species and strain, age and gender of the animals, and the clinical manifestations developed and their definitions. High-fat diet-induced obesity in animal models. Anat Anz ; : — Furthermore, beta-oxidation is downregulated, which increases the hepatic lipid stocks [ 162325 ].